Treatment of abscess (apostasis, apostem) abroad
Abscess is an acute surgical infectious disease that is characterized by local accumulation of pus. It can appear in any of the human body tissues and organs. A key indication of the abscess is a clear demarcation from healthy tissue by the pyogenic shell (capsule). Therefore the purulent process does not extend into nearby structures.
But the most dangerous is the possibility of a rupture of the abscess, which can result in sepsis and death.
Causes of Abscess (apostasis, apostem)
An abscess can occur as an independent disease or be a complication of other infectious processes, such as a ruptured boil, prostatitis, tonsillitis, osteomyelitis. Abscesses can appear everywhere: in the subcutaneous tissue, bones, muscles, internal organs.
Infectious agent is a nonspecific bacterial flora. Among the most frequent microorganisms that provoke abscess are:
- E. Coli
The main causes of abscesses are:
- Medical manipulations without the use of proper antiseptics
- Hematogenous or lymphogenous metastasis by pyogenic flora from other foci of infection in the body, including chronic
- Violation of the internal or external secretion glands outflow
The risk of an abscess increases with age and also with certain diseases ( eg,immunodeficiency conditions, diabetes).
Abscess (apostasis, apostem) - Symptoms
Disease begins acutely, with a sharp increase in the body temperature. It shows symptoms of the intoxication:
- Body temperature 38-40 degrees
- Loss of appetite
- Body aches
Symptoms of the intoxication decrease with the disease flow. This is connected with the pyogenic capsule formation. The capsule keeps the pus inside the inflammatory focus. Absorption of tissue decay residue in the blood is reduced, so the symptoms of intoxication disappear.
Local symptoms include all the signs of the inflammatory process:
- The impaired function of organs or tissues where there was festering
The symptom of the fluctuation is observed. It is the transfer of pus through a pus-filled cavity. In the centre of the formation is the noticeable softening. Along the edges infiltration (seal) is marked.
The general condition of the patient depends on the size of the lesion and the location of the abscess. If it is localized in the vital organs, it is very dangerous. The least dangerous are best treated abscesses of the subcutaneous fat on the surface location.
Abscess (apostasis, apostem)- Diagnostics
An abscess can be detected by a physical examination, if it is located on the surface.
Instrumental and laboratory diagnostic techniques help to confirm the diagnosis. The main ones are:
Ultrasound and X-rays areimaging techniques that establish the presence of the abscess, including a deep one. Size and location of an abscess, stage of the pathological process are determined.
Diagnostic puncture is held with a thick needle. Method is informative both for the surface and a deep abscess location, including the stage of infiltration when the pus cavity is not yet formed.
Bacterial swab test is a culture research that is held for the detecting the abscess agent.The biological material is put on the nutritious media. In a few days the colonies of microorganisms grow on them. The method helps to determine the sensitivity of the bacteria to the antibiotics, which increases the effectiveness of the drug therapy.
Treatment of Abscess (apostasis, apostem) abroad
Surgery is the main treatment. The abscess is opened and the pus is removed. Then the operation wound is washed and drained. The patient receives the antibiotic therapy. Cavity or open wound is washed daily with antibacterial agents and proteolytic enzymes.
If the abscess is located deeply, the percutaneous drainage is possible. A trocar catheter- a surgical instrument – is used by means of which the doctor reaches the abscess. Pus is removed from the cavity. Abscess itself should be washed and drained for several days. Regularly the cavity should be washed with antiseptic solutions.
If the localization of abscess is in the internal organs, then this often requires their partial removal (resection). Such purulent infections are very dangerous and threaten the patient's life. Resection of the abscess may be required in the lung, liver, prostate and other organs.
Abscess (apostasis, apostem) - Prognosis
The worst prognosis is when an abscess is found on the internal organs such as the liver, kidneys, and lungs. Without treatment, the mortality rate is close to 100%. Timely conservative and surgical treatment may achieve a good survival rate. It depends on many factors (the number of abscesses, presence of sepsis, comorbidity). In good clinics survival of these patients is more than 90%.
Abscess located in the subcutaneous fat layer does not pose a threat to the life of the patient if timely treatment is administered. They are rarely complicated. Generally the patient fully recovers within a few weeks.