diagnostic:Acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Diagnostic abroad
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant disease of the bone marrow, which often develops in children. The peak of its incidence is between 1 and 5 years old. The clinical manifestations of this disease are not specific, so the diagnosis confirmation requires a careful examination of the patient.
The diagnostics is carried out in the clinic setting. The length of stay is 12 days.
The first stage of the survey is the oncologist’s advice. The physician collects the case history and conducts a clinical examination. If any signs of ALL are found, the following further tests are prescribed:
1. Complete blood count. Upon acute leukemia, this test shows the lowered level of platelets and red blood cells. The blast cells appear.
2. Blood chemistry. Patients with ALL show an elevated level of lactate dehydrogenase. The indicators of liver and kidney functions may change.
3. Cytogenetic analysis. Allows identifying the chromosomal abnormalities, which may affect the course of the disease. These data are important for treatment program design. The test is performed using the bone marrow or blood (if it contains blast). Various methods of DNA staining are used to detect anomalies.
4. Abdominal ultrasound. Once in the liver and spleen, the leukemia cells cause swelling of these organs.
5. Comprehensive CT or MRI. The whole body scan reveals the impaired lymph nodes, meninges, bones and other internal organs affected by cancer.
6. Bone marrow aspiration biopsy (ilium wing biopsy). During this procedure, a bone marrow sample is taken from the patient’s bone and sent for histological examination. This test allows not only to diagnose the malignant disease, but also to determine its type accurately.
While in the hospital, the patient receives symptomatic therapy aimed at alleviation of his/her condition. In foreign clinics, the cost of medicines and nursing services are included in the diagnostic program cost.
According to the test findings, the physician establishes an accurate diagnosis. When ALL is confirmed, the patient’s risk group is determined as standard, medium or high. Taking this into account, the physician makes a forecast of the disease and develops an individual therapy tactics. Before discharge, the physician provides recommendations for further action.Hide
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