Hodgkin lymphomas (or Hodgkin disease) is a group of malignant blood diseases arising from mutations in the B-lymphocytes. Tumor formation in patients may be found wherever there is lymphoid tissue. However, this process commonly affects the lymph nodes. An adequate treatment of the pathology is only possible after a detailed diagnosis.
The first step in patient’s survey is the oncologist’s advice. The physician clarifies complaints, examines the lymph nodes and reviews the case history. If there is suspicion of Hodgkin lymphoma, the patient is prescribed a set of tests, which includes:
1. Complete blood count. The patients show a reduction of all major blood elements (red blood cells, platelets, leukocytes). The level of eosinophils, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate are increased.
2. Blood chemistry with a complete hemogram. This pathology shows elevated levels of protein, bilirubin, and liver enzymes.
3. Cytogenetic analysis. Using special staining techniques, the genome of B-lymphocytes is studied. The presence of chromosomal damage indicates a malignant blood disease with high probability.
4. Abdominal ultrasound, comprehensive CT/MRI. Visual diagnostic methods allow assessing the condition of the liver, spleen and other internal organs affected by cancer.
5. Aspiration bone marrow biopsy (ilium wing biopsy) with myelogram count. During the procedure, the physician takes a sample of the patient's bone marrow, and sends the same to the laboratory for qualitative and quantitative analysis. This test will help to understand whether the disease affected a hematopoietic organ, and if so, to what extent.
6. Removal of the lymph node for diagnostic purposes. The affected tissue is excised and studied under a microscope. The main sign of Hodgkin disease is the detection of giant multinucleated cells in the lymph node (Hodgkin lymphoma cells).
In the course of diagnosing, the patient is administered a symptomatic treatment. At all stages, the medical support is provided by the nursing staff of the clinic. According to the test findings, the professional establishes an accurate diagnosis and provides specific recommendations for further treatment. Hide