diagnostic:Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B- and T-cell). Diagnostic abroad
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a group of malignant diseases of the lymphatic system. There are several subtypes of this disease with different symptoms, response to treatment, and prognosis. Therefore, upon NHL diagnosis it is important not only to confirm the presence of a tumor, but also to establish its particular type.
The survey begins with the oncologist’s advice. The physician clarifies complaints, collects the case history and conducts a clinical examination. If NHL signs are identified, the patient is prescribed:
- Complete blood count. The patients show an increase or reduction in the number of white blood cells and an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
- Blood chemistry with a complete hemogram. For NHL, the analysis can show an increase in lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and creatinine.
- Cytogenetic analysis. Using different staining techniques, chromosomal mutation are revealed in the genome of tumor cells. The presence of anomalies is characteristic of specific NHL subtypes (e.g. Burkitt's lymphoma).
- Abdominal ultrasound, comprehensive CT or MRI. Visual techniques allow estimating the cancer prevalence. They reveal the bone lesions, liver, spleen, stomach and other viscera.
- Bone marrow aspiration biopsy (ilium wing biopsy) with myelogram count. A sample of the bone marrow is taken from the patient and subjected to qualitative and quantitative research. Myelogram (sample cellular composition analysis) allows distinguishing lymphoma from leukemia.
- Lymph node biopsy. The physician takes malignant cells with a special needle. The resultant material is examined under a microscope to determine a specific tumor type.
In the course of diagnostics, a symptomatic therapy is administered to alleviate the patient's condition. According to the research, the oncologist establishes an accurate diagnosis and chooses an optimal treatment program.Hide