Cardiology: Pericarditis — Differential diagnosis and conservative treatment. Treatment
Pericarditis is a severe heart disease characterized by development of inflammation in the pericardium. Pericarditis poses a serious risk to the patient, so in most cases it requires urgent hospitalization and comprehensive treatment. Most often, pericarditis arises as a consequence of rheumatic diseases (about 40% of all cases). Moreover, the cause of the disease may be infection, injury, and other cardiac diseases.
Early diagnostics of pericarditis is the key to successful treatment and favorable forecast. The diagnosis requires a comprehensive approach to establishment of not only the type of pericarditis, but also its causes, the degree of heart failure and related diseases. When a physician suspects pericarditis, s/he prescribes:
- blood tests: complete, biochemical, immunological,
- PCG captures changes in the heart tones;
- X-ray reveals the increase in the size of the heart, availability of adhesions, fluid in the pericardium, and calcifications;
- echocardiography is the most informative study determining a violation of heart movements, pericardial thickening and effusion increase;
- multislice computed tomography visualizes the abnormalities in the heart and pericardium;
- pericardial puncture with subsequent histological and cytological analysis of the resultant material.
The treatment is carried out in a hospital setting under the close supervision of a professional who adjusts the treatment, when required. The patient is prescribed the treatment regimen and a diet, the nature of which depends on the type of pericarditis and general condition of the patient.
- Anti-inflammatory drugs reduce the inflammation, exudation and swelling.
- Analgesics alleviate the pain and improve the overall well-being.
- Metabolic drugs support the work of the heart muscle.
- Diuretics and cardiac glycosides are prescribed to compensate the heart failure.
- Corticosteroids are indicated for severe cardiac abnormalities and intense exudation.
- Immunosuppressants are pathogenic agents for treatment of pericarditis of rheumatic origin.
- Pericardium puncture can combine the diagnostic and therapeutic target.
Early diagnosis and adequate treatment of pericarditis in a modern specialized clinic in most cases allows coping with the disease and restoring the health completely or partially.Hide