Hematology: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (all) — Stem cell transplant. Treatment abroad
Bone marrow transplantation is recommended to patients with a high risk of relapse of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The procedure is performed during the first 6 months after diagnosis. Typically, the stem cells are transplanted from a related donor. In the absence of such a donor, the patient is administered his/her own material, taken from him/her during remission.
Preparation for the procedure involves a detailed examination of the patient. The optimal diagnostic program includes:
- oncologist’s advice,
- case history collection,
- clinical examination,
- complete blood count,
- blood chemistry,
- cytogenetic analysis of the bone marrow
- CT or MRI.
According to the test findings, the physician develops an individual treatment strategy. The cost of drugs depends on the cycle intensity and treatment duration.
There are 2 options of bone marrow transplantation:
- Allogeneic transplantation. The material for transplantation is taken from the patient’s relative, or rarely from a stranger (in this case, selection of a compatible donor through the international bank is required).
- Autologous transplantation. Stem cells are obtained from the patient and stored frozen until transplantation.
The patient is hospitalized to conduct treatment. The average duration of stay in the hospital is 56 days.
The procedure is performed in the patient's room by administration of the donor material intravenously as a blood transfusion. Over the next months, the physicians monitor the stem cell survival.
Bone marrow transplantation is usually poorly tolerated. The first 4 weeks are considered the most critical for the patients. During this period, the patients may report:
- nausea, vomiting,
- increased bleeding,
- susceptibility to infections.
The patient’s condition is continuously monitored by the clinic staff. Symptomatic therapy is administered in order to alleviate the suffering. The entire rehabilitation period passes in an isolated ward in which a strict hygienic regime is maintained.
Before discharge, the patient visits the oncologist, which provides him/her instructions for further treatment.Hide
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