Hematology: Acute myeloid leukemia (aml) — Stem cell transplant. Treatment
Stem cell transplantation is prescribed to patients with a high risk of relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In the absence of a donor, the healthy cells are taken from the patient during remission. This type of transplant is called autologous. The success of the procedure outcome is increased by a high-dose chemotherapy.
Before transplantation, the patient must undergo a series of medical tests. The optimal diagnostic plan includes:
- oncologist’s advice,
- clinical examination,
- case history collection,
- complete blood count and blood chemistry,
- cytogenetic analysis.
According to the test findings, the physician evaluates the patient's general condition and risks associated with the use of intensive care.
A few days before treatment, the patient is hospitalized. He is supposed to stay in a separate room, where sterile conditions are maintained. The duration of stay in the hospital is 30 days.
Before transplantation, the patient receives chemotherapy in high doses. Due to this therapy:
- a room for the new cells is made,
- the risk of relapse after treatment is reduced.
The transplantation begins after complete destruction of the bone marrow.
The stem cells are administered intravenously. The procedure does not differ from blood transfusion and lasts no more than 1.5 hours. Cells from the bloodstream enter the bone marrow, where they begin to take roots.
The rehabilitation period takes several weeks. The first 2 weeks are the most difficult for patients. The report weakness, nausea, and increased gum bleeding. In order to mitigate the adverse effects, the symptomatic therapy is prescribed. The cost of medication is determined by treatment intensity.
After transplantation, the patient is very susceptible to any infection, so s/he is placed in full, and then in partial isolation. Careful attention in this period is provided by the clinic medical staff.
The treatment efficacy is monitored by lab tests. Before discharge, the physician performs examination and provides recommendations for further action.Hide
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