Duodenal cancer is a rare severe malignant oncologic disease peculiar with an unfavourable prognosis. This illness has only 2% among all the gastrointestinal tract cancer types.
Duodenal cancer is usually diagnosed in elderly people and it is hardly affects people under 50 years of age.
Exact reasons for duodenal cancer remain unknown at the moment. However, doctors have information regarding the external and internal factors that increase the probability of the disease.
Risk factors of duodenal cancer are:
Possible locations of the duodenal cancer are:
Duodenal cancer symptoms are predetermined by several nootropic mechanisms:
Duodenal cancer is often diagnosed at its latter stages when a tumour is already large. Patients normally come to the doctor when a malformation obstructs the intestine lumen or bile ducts.
The symptoms are unspecific, and therefor you can’t really suspect the cancer according to the symptoms. Hence instrumental diagnostics techniques is required so that the proper duodenal cancer treatment is administered.
The tumour can be detected by means of radiography, but further you will need the differential diagnostics with the cancer of another location with the help of fibrogastroduodenoscopy. A special tube with the camera is inserted into the duodenum to search its cavity. Again, biopsy can be done at the same time for further histological tests of a sample tissue which helps to confirm a diagnosis.
A CT evaluates the prevalence of the pathological process. This is an X-ray method of investigation, which obtains a layered image of the abdominal cavity structures. CT is carried out with a contrast agent to detect duodenal cancer.
Surgery is the key to treating duodenal cancer. The extent of the intervention depends on the stage of the pathologic process and tumour location. Small sized tumours size can be removed via endoscopy when surgical instruments are inserted through a tube put into the duodenum.
In most cases, an open or laparoscopic operation is performed (with the penetration of the video endoscope and surgical instruments through small incisions into the abdominal cavity), aimed at the removal of:
Chemotherapy is used both as a part of comprehensive therapy in addition to the surgery and without surgery, if cancer is unresectable. Medicines can be prescribed before the surgery to reduce the tumour size and after to reduce the risk of the recurrence and prolong the remission period.
New directions of drug therapy are being developed. Research aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Bevacizumab shows promising results. Bevacizumab blocks the formation of new vessels that feed the tumour. The inhibitor is already being used for colon cancer treatment. This medicine will help to prolong life of the patients suffering from duodenal cancer as well.
Prognosis is generally unfavourable for duodenal cancer. Mortality remains on a high level even if a tumour was detected early. This is associated to the early metastasis of the tumour and its infiltration into the surrounding tissues. Duodenum is located in the tight anatomical position with the other areas of the small intestine, pancreas, liver, stomach, bile ducts. As a consequence, cancer spreads quickly affecting all the healthy organs of the abdominal cavity.
5-year-survival statistics, depending on the cancer stage is:
The statistics can be improved on condition of the treatment in the advanced European medical centres where the latest achievements in oncology is used.
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