Treatment of ovarian cyst (oothecoma) abroad
Ovarian cyst is a tumor-like formation within or on the surface of the ovary. Cyst can considerably increase size of an ovary. Some kinds of cysts go away by themselves and don’t threaten woman’s health a lot. Other cysts reach large sizes and are accompanied by life-threatening complications.
Ovarian cyst can be a cause of infertility. Certain types of cysts can turn into cancer.
Causes of ovarian cyst (oothecoma)
Depending on the type of the ovarian cyst, it can be caused by:
- Follicular cyst appears when ovulation doesn’t happen and the dominant follicle keeps on growing as a result of hormonal disorders.
- Corpus luteum cyst appears due to the fluid accumulation in the corpus luteum that form after the ovulation.
- Endometrial cyst appears due to proliferation of endometrial cells (the inner layer of the uterus) on the surface of the ovary.
- Parovarian cyst forms from an appendage of the ovary and occurs as a result of abnormal embryonic development.
- Dermoid cyst is a benign tumor with thick capsule comprising mucus and various inclusions inside (sebaceous glands, hair, teeth, etc.). It appears as a result of violations during embryogenesis.
- Mucinous cyst. Contributing factors to this cyst appearance are heredity, hormonal disorders, and inflammatory diseases of the ovaries.
Symptoms of the ovarian cyst
Symptoms of the ovarian cyst depend on its sizes and type.
- Follicular cyst has, usually, a small size (6 cm). It is accompanied by abnormal menstrual cycle. After its recovery, the cystis often manifested by profuse bleedings. In many patients, the follicular cyst may be asymptomatic. It is painless, mobile, has an elastic consistency. In most cases, the cyst is unilateral.
- Corpus luteum cyst can be manifested by breast enlargement, delayed menstruation, bleedings from the genital tract. The symptoms are similar to symptoms of pregnancy. The danger is in the corpus luteum cyst rupture, which may occur during sexual intercourse.
- A simple (serous) cyst is rarely accompanied by symptoms. If they are, then the signs are similar to those of follicular cyst. Usually, the disease is not diagnosed. Doctors often put functional cyst on the basis of ultrasound as serous ovarian cysts cannot be confirmed without the material for morphological analysis.
- Parovarian cyst is accompanied by non-recurrent low back pain. Sometimes there is a violation of the cycle. It has dimensions up to 10 cm. The symptoms appear only if the cyst is larger than 5 cm.
- Endometrial cyst is manifested by pain before menstruation and during menstruation. Almost always it is accompanied by the adhesive process in the pelvis. Endometrioid cyst causes infertility among many patients.
- Dermoid cyst can reach large sizes - up to 15 cm, and therefore it is accompanied by severe symptoms. These include pain in the lower back or abdomen, menstrual disorders, bleeding from the genital tract. Cyst may compress the bladder or rectum that causes the symptoms of dysuria and constipation.
- Mucinous cyst is manifested by similar symptoms upon reaching the large sizes: pain, menstrual irregularities, and signsof bladder and rectum compression. Mucinous and dermoid cysts are defined as cystic tumors. They are called cysts just because of having similar external characteristics.
Diagnostics of ovarian cyst
Basic methods to detect the ovarian cyst are:
- Ultrasound helps to find even the small tumor-like formation in the ovary. Doctors can assume the type of cyst due to certain criteria, but to confirm it they have to do the histological test.
- Laparoscopy is a surgical method of diagnostics and treatment that is associated with instrument intervention into the pelvic cavity. Laparoscopy helps to remove the cyst if necessary, but also to take the biological material for morphological analysis. The research helps to find out exactly what type of cyst has a patient and differentiate it from the malignant oncological process.
Treatment of ovarian cyst abroad
Follicular and luteal (the corpus luteum) cysts are among the so called functional. They are treated conservatively. Doctors prescribe medicines and a patient stays under the observation. Those cysts usually disappear by themselves.
Surgery is rarely needed. Indications for the surgery are:
- Suspicion of the oncological process
- Cyst’s diameter is more than 6 cm
- Cyst doesn’t disappear within 6 months
- Cyst is accompanied by obvious clinical symptoms
Even small sized dermoid, endometrial, mucinous ovarian cysts require surgery. They carry the risk of malignancy (malignant transformation), and they are often accompanied by complications.
Ovarian cyst (Oothecoma) - Prognosis
Dermoid and mucinous ovarian cysts transform into cancer in 2 % of cases. They are often complicated by torsion of cyst pedicle, rupture of an ovary, inflammatory processes. Prognosis for life and reproductive function is usually favourable after the surgery. Recurrences are not usually observed.
Endometrial cyst can transform into cancer in 1 % of patients. Prognosis is favourable after the surgery, including the reproductive function, if the potency of the fallopian tubes is restored. Though, 15-30% of patients have recurrence within 2-5 years after the surgery.
Functional ovarian cysts have favourable prognosis. It usually disappears within several months without treatment. Malignant process (cancerogenic transformation)is impossible because there is no adenogenous epithelium.