Treatment of meningioma of brain abroad
Meningioma is a brain tumor, mainly benign. It is malignant only in 1,7% cases. Other percentages of these neoformation are characterized by the slow growth and favorable course.
Meningioma can be observed as often as twice among the women than men. Meningioma can be detected at any age, but most often it can happen after the age of 45. Only 1,5 % of cases from all the cases can happen among children.
Causes of Meningioma of brain
Risk factors of the brain meningioma development are:
- The impact of electromagnetic fields (processing railways, electrical shocks)
- Ionizing radiation (meningioma of brain is often found among theemployees of the nuclear industry and among the patients after radiation therapy)
- Traumatic brain injury
- Elevated blood estrogen and progesterone levels can be a reason of brain meningioma among women (meningioma’s clinical picture often occurs in the second half of the pregnancy; among non’pregnant women the symptoms strengthening happens during the proliferative phase of the cycle)
Meningioma of brain - Symptoms
Meningioma of brain is asymptomatic among the majority of patients and is not diagnosed while the patient is alive. It can be found by a chance by coroner. If the tumor reaches large sizes though, this can be life-threatening and causes the symptoms occurrence. Symptoms depend on the meningioma location.
According to the severity of the clinical symptoms the illness can be in the following stages:
- Mild decompensation
- Rough decompensation
Most people who suffer from meningioma refer to the doctor when meningioma is in the mild decompensation or rough decompensation stage.
Symptoms depend on the meningioma location. Different patients have different clinical signs of the illness:
- Hypertensive syndrome is manifested by the headache, vomiting, mental disorders, memory impairment
- Epileptic seizures (at the initial stage of the disease a patient often has cramps in one leg opposite to the affected part of the brain)
- Focal symptoms, depending on the meningioma location (impaired vision, speech, eyelid droop, incontinence)
- Movement disorders (paresis, paralysis) are observed if the tumor is of large size
Meningioma mainly grows towards the brain. Some patients have meningioma growing towards the bone and even penetrating into the periosteum. 15% of patients have a meningioma spread beyond the skull. 8% of patients have the multiple meningioma (more than one meningioma tumor).
Meningioma of brain - Diagnostics
Instrumental methods of diagnostics that help to visualize the neoformation are used to detect the meningioma:
Craniography. Skull X-ray helps to detect meningioma among 40% of patients. This is a tentative method of research that allows a doctor to prescribe a patient with the headache complaints and other non-specific symptoms the necessary treatment.
Computed tomography (CT) –isaradiological method of research, provides images of several sections of the skull.The sensitivity of the method is very high. CT helps to detect a meningioma in 96% of cases. The specificity of the method is 93%. Rarely, meningioma can be misdiagnosed with the metastatic cancer, glioblastoma, or lymphoma.
CT with contrast. In 4% of cases meningioma can’t be detected by usual CT. Thus, CT with intravenously injected contrasting agent is used. It accumulates in the meningioma tissues and thickens its density.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI has an even more diagnostic value than CT. But it is more rarely used because of the high price of the method and low availability. Many clinics just don’t have the appropriate equipment to do such test. MRI helps not only to detect a meningioma, but also to define its histological type.
Angiography is a radiological method that presupposes the insertion of contrasting agent into the brain blood vessels. It is used only as preparation before the surgery as it gives a chance to identify the sources of meningioma blood supply. MRI carries the risk of complications so it’s not always used.
Treatment of Meningioma of brain abroad
Meningioma is removed in the process of the surgery. The removal can be partial or complete one. Partial removal gives worse results as a tumor recurrence can happen.
Complete removal of meningioma is not always possible. Sometimes it penetrates into the functionally significant parts of the brain.
Other treatment methods are rarely used:
- Stereotactic radiosurgery is used if the tumor's location is out of reach, in the remote location, if its diameter is less than 3.5 cm
- Stereotactic radiotherapy is used after surgical treatment for the rest of the tumor in order to reduce the risk of recurrence
- Chemotherapy is used only for the malignant meningiomas and its not used for the benign tumor treatment
Meningioma of brain - Prognosis
Prognosis is favorable for the meningioma of brain. Surgical treatment helps to remove the tumor and eliminate all the symptoms. Recurrence of the illness doesn’t happen in majority of the cases.
Five-year survival is 91,3 % . If the tumor is malignant the average life expectancy doesn’t exceed 5 years.
Illness recurrence is possible after the surgery. Chances of the repeated meningioma formation depend on the tumor type and kind of the surgery. Recurrence risk for the different types of meningioma:
- Benign – 15% within 10 years
- Atypical – 30% within 3 years, 38% within 5 years
- Malignant – 98% within 3 years
Prognosis is much better if the meningioma is removed completely, not partially. In this case, benign tumor recurs within 5 years among 3% of cases, within 10 years - among 4% of cases. Malignant tumor has a risk of recurrence within 5 years for 78% of patients.
If meningioma is removed partially the incidence of its repeated growth within 10 years is 60% (average rate for all the histological types).