Scoliosis is a curvature of the spine in the frontal plane with the rotation (turning) of the vertebrae. The disease occurs and progresses mainly during childhood. It is characterized by the appearance of one to three arcs of the curvature, which cannot be corrected by changing the body position.
Scoliosis is a very common disease. The frontal curvature of the spine, according to different authors, is experienced among 0.7-1.5% of people. The most dangerous age is from 9 to 12 years, when the disease can be detected among 5-10% of children. Women are more susceptible to this deformation than men. Scoliosis is diagnosed approximately 5 times more often in women.
Scoliosis can be congenital or acquired. Congenital scoliosis can be:
Among the well-known reasons of the congenital form of the disease are:
Scoliosis is idiopathic in 80% of cases. That means the reason of its development remains unknown. However, the studies have found that in most cases the mechanism of this is congenital dysplastic scoliosis.
Scoliosis doesn’t usually cause subjective symptoms, except for the obvious consequences of spinal curvature. The patient notices a violation of posture, changes in gait and posture while standing or sitting.
Objective symptoms of the scoliosis while sitting position:
In the sitting position the scoliosis can be determined by pelvic imbalance and lateral deviation of the trunk.
A doctor’s appointment can confirm the diagnosis by means of instrumental methods used to determine the degree of severity of scoliosis.
X-rays is a basic research method to determine the degree of spinal deformity. An X-ray picture is done:
Depending on the angle of curvature (defined between the vertical axis of the body and the spine) are four degrees of severity of scoliosis defined:
The electromyographic studies are additional diagnostic measures aimed at assessing the state of the muscular system.
Medical tactic is determined individually for each patient, as it depends on many factors:
Conservative treatment includes the use of the following methods:
Treatment should only be provided under the guidance of an experienced, highly qualified specialist. Otherwise, you may not achieve the expected result, and even harm the child's health. For example, the spine stretching exercises used in some clinics are proven by the studies to also accelerating the progression of scoliosis.
Surgical treatment is given to the children no earlier than adolescence, due to the following indications:
Various types of operation are performed involving influence on the vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs or tendon-ligamentous apparatus of the spine.
The later the child develops scoliosis; the better the prognosis, because the progression of the disease stops between 17-20 years of age, with the growth of the skeleton. The exception is when scoliosis is diagnosed on the background of polio. This form of the disease may progress even after the skeletal development is over.
When using conservative methods of treatment for 1-2 stages of the pathological process the prognosis is conditionally favourable. Sometimes therapy is ineffective, and then surgery has to be performed.
When using conservative methods of treatment for 3-4th stage of the prognosis; this results in a unfavourable prognosis for most patients. They need an operation. It does not amount to 100% chance of a cure, but for most patients the different surgical techniques can correct position of the spine.
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