Cardiology: Congenital and acquired heart defects — Conservative treatment and holter monitoring. Treatment
Heart disease is the abnormal structure of the heart or blood vessels departing from it. More than a half of all heart defects affect the mitral valve, the remaining 45-40% account for defects of other valves, baffles, and abnormalities of the large vessels. Congenital heart defects are formed in utero and are related either to a genetic disorder, or to the effect of various adverse factors. Acquired heart defect develops after birth and is a complication of a variety of diseases, such as infectious, rheumatic, systemic or vascular.
Heart Defect Treatment
The diagnosis of the heart defect does not dictate the need for treatment; some defects are compensated and do not cause human discomfort. In this case, the physician develops recommendations for regular check-ups aimed at identification of complications, drafts an optimal lifestyle and diet pattern with some restrictions.
Decompensated heart defects usually require surgical correction. Modern technologies allow operating even preterm infants with a weight of just over 2 kg. While waiting for the surgery, the patient is monitored by an experienced physician, who prescribes conservative therapy to maintain the cardiac activity, subject to availability of indications.
There are several dozens of surgery methods for heart defects. The choice is based on the defect type, its intensity and severity of heart failure. All surgical techniques can be divided into two major groups:
- Open surgeries via thoracotomic access.
- Endovascular interventions.
Open surgeries are performed for complex defects, large defects and inability to perform the endovascular correction. The surgery is traumatic enough, and results in a long period of rehabilitation, but the use of robotic surgical technologies and other innovations allows to minimize the risks and to obtain a favorable result.
Endovascular surgery is less traumatic. Access to the heart is ensured through the peripheral vessels. Special catheters and instruments are moved along the vessel to the heart and the defect is corrected. Upon valve stenosis, the balloon dilatation is performed. Abnormal openings are closed with a special occluder. The actions are monitored by echocardiography and angiography. A well-coordinated work of the surgical team minimizes the duration of anesthesia and surgical risks.
The heart defects shall be treated in a timely manner in a modernly equipped cardiology center. In most cases, congenital and acquired heart defects can be corrected with favorable results.Hide
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