Hematology: Pancytopenia — Conservative treatment. Treatment
Pancytopenia is a severe hematological syndrome, which is a consequence of adverse effect of certain factors and characterized by a sharp decline in all blood elements, i.e. platelets, white blood cells and red blood cells. The most frequent causes of pancytopenia are some cancers, radiation emissions, the use of cytotoxic drugs, osteoporosis, hereditary anomalies of the bone marrow functions, and severe infectious diseases.
During the first visit to the clinics, the professional examines the patient, collects his/her case history, and prescribes a comprehensive general clinical and special survey:
- CBC identifies the level of blood cells;
- blood chemistry;
- analysis for serum iron;
- ultrasonography of the abdomen;
- CT and MRI;
- aspiration biopsy of bone marrow (or iliac wing punch biopsy).
Based on these findings, the physician determines the severity of blood disorders and conducts a differential diagnosis of diseases which may lead to pancytopenia.
The treatment tactics is based on the cause of identified symptoms and severity of the patient's condition. Treatment with iron preparations in combination with blood transfusion is indicated for a low level of iron. The established osteoporosis requires prescription of trace elements in combination with antiresorptive drugs. If the cause of pancytopenia was an infectious process, the therapy should be aimed at pathogen eradication and the relief of the inflammatory process.
Pancytopenia treatment usually starts in the hospital where the patient receives intensive care. At this stage, the services of qualified nursing staff and close supervision of professionals are particularly important. The patient is discharged after improvement and receipt of further recommendations for outpatient treatment.Hide