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Testicular Cancer: Diagnostic in the Best Hospitals in the World

University Hospital of Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich

10/10
location_onGermany, Munich

Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology

According to the Focus magazine, the Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology ranks among the top German departments specializing in prostate cancer treatment! The department offers the full range of diagnostics and treatment of urological diseases in men and boys. The department employs comprehensively trained, experienced doctors, who use in their practice all the advanced medical achievements. Each patient is provided with an individual approach to therapy with due consideration of specific needs and wishes.

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people Interpreter up to 3 hours
list Translation of 2 pages

Urology Hospital Munich-Planegg Munich

10/10
location_onGermany, Munich

Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology

The Department of Urology annually examines more than 730 men with suspected testicular cancer. The department offers all necessary examination methods, including the full range of laboratory tests, ultrasound and tomography, as well as a testicular biopsy with histological examination of the material. The department is headed by Prof. Dr. med. Martin Kriegmair, who is a member of the German Society of Urology, as well as of the European and American Association of Urologists.

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Memorial Sisli Hospital Istanbul

9.2/10
location_onTurkey, Istanbul

Department of Urology and Andrology

The Department of Urology and Andrology offers comprehensive diagnostics and effective treatment of the full spectrum of diseases of the genital organs in men, as well as the urinary system in men and women. Andrology specialists deal with the treatment of male infertility, erectile dysfunction, ejaculation disorders, age-related changes in men, etc. One of the key focuses of the department's work is the treatment of oncological diseases of the genitourinary system in men. The department's medical team is distinguished by exceptional professionalism in their area of ​​expertise and regularly demonstrates excellent treatment success rates. The doctors work on advanced medical equipment that allows them to detect the slightest pathological changes and effectively carry out surgical treatment using endoscopic, laparoscopic and robotic techniques, which guarantee quick postoperative recovery and minimal risks of complications after the intervention.

Medipol Mega University Hospital Istanbul

8/10
location_onTurkey, Istanbul

Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology

The Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology offers the full range of diagnostics and treatment of genitourinary diseases in men and boys. Particular attention is paid to the surgical treatment of prostate cancer. The treatment of this pathology is also carried out using an innovative technique, namely high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Depending on the clinical case, the surgical intervention can be open or laparoscopic / endoscopic. The department ranks among the best in the field of its competence in the country.

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University Hospital Ulm

8.7/10
location_onGermany, Ulm

Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology

According to the Focus magazine, the Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology ranks among the top medical institutions in Germany for prostate cancer treatment! The department offers the full range of high-precision diagnostics and effective treatment of diseases of the urogenital system, genitals in men and boys. It treats about 3,000 inpatients and 9,000 outpatients with the clinical cases of varying severity every year.

Primus Super Speciality Hospital New Delhi

9/10
location_onIndia, New Delhi

Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology, Nephrology

The Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology, Nephrology provides the accurate diagnostics and effective treatment of a wide range of genitourinary diseases in men, kidney diseases in men and women. For patients with the advanced stage of kidney failure, kidney transplantation is offered. Of particular interest is the treatment of cancers, particularly, prostate cancer, bladder cancer and kidney cancer. In most cases, the doctors use non-invasive and minimally invasive treatment methods, thereby providing better results and speedy recovery of the patient.

University Hospital Frankfurt am Main

10/10
location_onGermany, Frankfurt am Main

Department of Urology

According to the Focus magazine, the Department of Urology ranks among the top German medical institutions specializing in prostate cancer treatment! The department offers the full range of high-precision diagnostic studies and effective therapeutic options for men with diseases of the genitourinary system. The doctors of the department specialize in the treatment of prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, kidney, testicular cancers, urolithiasis, erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence. There are also excellent qualifications in the field of reconstructive urology.

Charite University Hospital Berlin

9/10
location_onGermany, Berlin

Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology

According to the Focus magazine, the Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology ranks among the top German medical facilities specializing in prostate cancer treatment! The department offers all types of modern diagnostic and therapeutic services for patients with urologic diseases. Of particular interest is the treatment of urogenital tumors in men and urogynecological diseases. The department also specializes in kidney transplantation, which is carried out within the specialized center. This center is the largest in Germany and Europe and annually demonstrates high treatment success rates. In addition, the department's competence covers the treatment of urological problems in boys of all age groups.

University Hospital Heidelberg

9.8/10
location_onGermany, Heidelberg

Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology

According to the Focus magazine, the Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology ranks among the top German departments specializing in prostate cancer treatment! The department offers the full range of diagnostics and treatment of the urinary system in men and boys. The department has a long history, rich traditions, and is also a recognized center of excellence in the treatment of all urological diseases. The department specializes in the treatment of malignant urological diseases, reconstructive surgery, pediatric urology, treatment of urinary tract dysfunction and kidney stone disease.

University Hospital Jena

8.9/10
location_onGermany, Jena

Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology

According to the Focus magazine, the Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology ranks among the top German medical facilities specializing in prostate cancer treatment! The department offers the full range of advanced methods of diagnostics and treatment of all genitourinary system diseases, including in children. Of particular interest is the treatment of patients with urinary tract and kidney tumors, kidney stone disease, prostate diseases, treatment of urinary incontinence, andrologic disorders and urological problems in young patients. Since 2010, the department has been certified as the Prostate Cancer Center (certified by the German Cancer Society, recertified in 2016).

University Hospital Erlangen

9.1/10
location_onGermany, Erlangen

Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology

According to the Focus magazine, the Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology ranks among the top German departments specializing in prostate cancer treatment! The department offers the full range of diagnostics and treatment of diseases of the urogenital system in adult men and children. The department operates a number of certified specialized centers, for example, the Prostate Cancer Center, the Urinary Incontinence Center, the Pediatric Kidney Disease Center, etc. The department's doctors are also actively engaged in research, so the patients have access to relevant clinical trials, which in some cases saves their lives.

University Hospital Halle (Saale)

9.6/10
location_onGermany, Halle

Department of Urology

According to the Focus magazine, the Department of Urology ranks among the top medical institutions in Germany specializing in prostate cancer treatment! The department offers the full range of diagnostics and treatment of urinary tract diseases in men. Of particular interest are kidney transplantation, treatment of benign and malignant urologic diseases. The department has become one of the pioneers in the field of minimally invasive robot-assisted surgery (da Vinci), thanks to which it has exceptional experience in this area. In addition, the department became the second medical facility in Germany, which performed kidney transplantation using a da Vinci robotic system.

University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf

9.2/10
location_onGermany, Hamburg

Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology

According to the Focus magazine, the Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology ranks among the top German medical facilities specializing in prostate cancer treatment! The department has all the diagnostic and therapeutic options to provide first-class medical care for patients with diseases of the genitourinary system. The priority focus is reconstructive urology, in particular, the whole range of urethral surgery, procedures for the treatment of urinary incontinence (including artificial sphincter implantation, sling procedures), as well as penile surgery for congenital or acquired malformations, prosthetics in case of erectile dysfunction.

University Hospital Würzburg

9.2/10
location_onGermany, Würzburg

Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology

The Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology offers the diagnostics and treatment of all diseases of the urinary system organs (kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, etc.), as well as of the male reproductive organs in adults and children. The department specializes in the surgical and drug treatment of oncological diseases, correction of complex malformations, and plastic reconstructive urology. The department is the certified Prostate Cancer Centre.

University Hospital Rechts der Isar Munich

9.8/10
location_onGermany, Munich

Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology

According to the Focus magazine, the Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology ranks among the top German departments specializing in prostate cancer treatment! The department offers the full range of services in the field of diagnosis and treatment of all urological diseases. It provides an effective therapy for pathologies of the kidneys, urinary tract, bladder, prostate, testes and their appendages, vas deferens and penis. The high quality of medical care is confirmed by many prestigious certificates, for example, the DEKRA certificate and the certificate of the European Board of Urology.

University Hospital RWTH Aachen

8.7/10
location_onGermany, Aachen

Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology

According to the Focus magazine, the Department of Adult and Pediatric Urology ranks among the top German medical facilities specializing in prostate cancer treatment! The department offers services for the diagnostics and treatment of diseases of the kidneys, urinary tract and pathologies of the reproductive organs in men. The therapeutic options are complemented by the treatment of urological problems in children. The department's doctors focus on the patients with oncopathologies (prostate cancer, renal cell cancer, bladder cancer, testicular cancer). Of particular interest is minimally invasive therapy of stones in the kidneys, ureters and bladder. The doctors have in their arsenal conventional and the very latest conservative, drug and surgical therapies, which allow them to achieve the best result in clinical cases of varying severity.

Testicular cancer is a relatively rare disease. It accounts for about 2% of malignant tumors in men. At the same time, the pathology is detected mainly in young men. The disease is mostly diagnosed at the age of 25-35 years. In this age category, this is the first most common oncological disease. It usually responds well to treatment. Nonetheless, it is important to make an accurate diagnostics in order not only to identify the tumor, but also to understand what kind of histological type it is, what stage the disease has and how to provide the best treatment for it.

Is it possible to diagnose testicular cancer at an early stage?

The diagnostics of testicular cancer at an early stage is possible. Moreover, in most cases, the tumor can be detected early. There are at least two reasons for this:

  1. The early onset of symptoms of testicular cancer. Even in case of small tumors, a man experiences pain in the scrotum, the scrotum become swollen and contains a lump that can be palpated. 
  2. The men are very careful about their genitals. They do not always consult a specialist in case of symptoms arising from the intestines, bronchopulmonary or cardiovascular system, but the slightest signs of pathology affecting the genitals cause concern, which becomes the reason for visiting a doctor. The doctor may suspect a tumor by palpating the scrotum.

In general, testicular cancer is not common, but if you have reason to believe that you are at risk for this disease, it is worthwhile to conduct a self-examination. Particularly at risk are those who had cryptorchidism, as well as people with burdened heredity.

Below is the instructions for self-examination of the testis: 

  1. You should make the examination after a shower or bath when the scrotum is in a relaxed state. 
  2. You should put aside the penis and carefully examine each testicle. 
  3. You should roll each of them individually between the thumb and forefinger. 

When making an examination, the man can detect dense nodules, as well as any changes in the density of the testicles. The location of one testicle below the other is not a sign of pathology, their slightly different sizes, as well as the presence of a small tubercle on the outside of the testicle is an appendage that any man has. Sometimes the man can detect enlarged veins. This is a sign of the disease (varicocele), but it has nothing to do with malignant neoplasms.

Should nodules be detected or one testiscle be swollen, painful, you should see a doctor. He will palpate, make an ultrasound scan and determine exactly whether there is reason to suspect a malignant process.

Ultrasound scan

An ultrasound scan is the main initial diagnostic method for testicular cancer. If the doctor has palpated a suspicious neoplasm, he will certainly prescribe this study for you.

The ultrasound scan helps to understand whether the nodule found in the testicle is dense. If so, in the vast majority of cases it is a malignant tumor, because other dense neoplasms of corresponding localization are almost never found. The doctor can immediately prescribe you an operation to remove the testicle, even without a biopsy.

Blood test 

Although ultrasound can detect a testicular tumor, it does not make it possible to determine its histological type. This can be done using a blood test for tumor markers. These include:

  • human chorionic gonadotropin with a high probability indicates a non-seminoma tumor, less often this can be a seminoma;
  • alpha-fetoprotein levels can often be elevated in non-seminoma tumors, but never increased in case of seminoma. 

Thus, the identification of any oncological markers suggests that the neoplasm detected in the scrotum with ultrasound is highly likely to be a non-seminoma tumor. This is important for choosing a treatment method, because only seminomas are sensitive to radiation therapy.

However, the absence of tumor markers in the blood does not mean that a person does not have cancer. Some tumors never produce these substances or do so very rarely. In addition, any cancer in the initial stage does not increase the levels of tumor markers so that the results of the study could be interpreted unambiguously.

Sometimes the patient may be indicated a lactate dehydrogenase test. The levels of this enzyme rises with the spread of the tumor process. A high concentration of LDH indicates an advanced form of testicular cancer.

Biopsy 

A biopsy is not used for testicular cancer diagnostics. Firstly, almost any dense mass in the scrotum is cancer, and therefore the diagnosis can be confirmed by ultrasound. A biopsy does not make much sense. Secondly, it is dangerous because it can lead to the spread of the tumor.

Therefore, a histological examination is carried out after the operation to remove the testicle. The tumor fragments are examined under a microscope, after which the doctors make a conclusion on the type of cancer. Based on this, the doctor makes a decision whether the patient needs radiation therapy, whether chemotherapy is required and according to what scheme it should be performed.

The removal of the testicle is very rarely preceded by a biopsy. If the doctor suspects that the neoplasm may be benign, he may not perform an orchiectomy right away. The biopsy is performed in the operating room. The doctor makes an incision above the pubis, while the spermatic cord does not intersect. He removes the testicle and examines it. If there is no sign of cancer, he will put it back into the scrotum and suture the wound. If there is a suspicious neoplasm, its fragment will be immediately examined. Should the malignant process be confirmed, the doctor has to continue the surgical procedure and remove the testicle.

Other tests 

Other imaging tests can also be used to assess the stage of testicular cancer. They make it possible to understand whether the tumor spread to the lymph nodes, whether the treatment is effective. The imaging tests are also used to detect recurrence of a tumor after surgery.

Here are the main tests to evaluate the stage of testicular cancer and its spread: 

  • chest x-ray;
  • ultrasound;
  • MRI;
  • CT.

Only if it is suspected that testicular cancer has spread to the brain or spinal cord is MRI carried out. A CT scan allows for the detection of foci of tumor spread in the liver and lymph nodes. A chest x-ray will be carried out if the spread of testicular cancer to the lungs is suspected.

Sometimes the doctor may carry out a PET scan. It is effective only for seminomas. It is not always possible to evaluate the spread of non-seminoma tumors using a PET scan because these tumors do not accumulate a radionuclide well. A radioactive substance is introduced into the human body and it selectively accumulates in cancer cells. This is followed by CT scan. The drug accumulation sites are determined by the doctor as metastasis.

A bone x-ray can rarely be performed, since testicular cancer can also spread to these areas. 

Diagnostics abroad with the Booking Health company 

To diagnose testicular cancer, establish the exact stage and plan the most effective treatment, you can go to one of the best hospitals in the world. The Booking Health company can arrange this trip for you. We are dealers in the field of medical tourism and provide the following benefits:

  • Selection of the best hospital, which specializes in the diagnostics and treatment of testicular cancer. 
  • Reduced treatment costs up to 50% due to the lack of additional coefficients for foreign patients.
  • Establishment of communication with a urologist who will be involved in your diagnostics and treatment.
  • Selection of the most suitable dates for the diagnostics. 
  • Preparation of a diagnostic program abroad, without the need to repeat previously completed studies.
  • Monitoring of the diagnostic and treatment program at all their stages. 
  • Monitoring of the cost of procedures, financial expenses and the return of all unspent funds upon completion of the program.
  • Buying and forwarding of medicines prescribed by a urologist.
  • Organization of additional diagnostics or treatment after completion of the main program.
  • Communication with the hospital after diagnostics. 

We guarantee high-level service. The Booking Health staff will book a hotel and airline tickets for you, help you get a visa, provide the interpreting services and arrange transfers from the airport to the hospital and back.




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