Cancer: Choriocarcinoma — Chemotherapy. Treatment
Choriocarcinomas are rare malignancies of the female reproductive system. They are primary and secondary by origin. Primary choriocarcinomas are developed in the ovaries from embryonic germ cells in girls and women who had no previous pregnancies. The formation of secondary tumors is associated with pregnancy. Such formations are derived from cells of the outer shell of the ovum and, losing contact with it, can affect various organs (uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, lungs and so on).
The main treatment method is chemotherapy. A number of patients are further prescribed surgical and radiation techniques.
The drugs from the group of anti-metabolites, anti-tumor antibiotics and oncolytic alkaloids are frequently used for choriocarcinomas. The drugs are prescribed as a mono- or polychemotherapy. The specific dosage regimen is chosen based on the tumor process stage.
The treatment is carried out by courses 2 to 3 weeks each until normalization of human chorionic gonadotropin level in the body. After that, we recommend three more preventive courses according to the same regimen. When the selected line of therapy proves to be ineffective, the chemotherapyis changed.
The indications for surgical treatment are:
- massive bleeding,
- a high risk of organ rupture by the tumor,
- choriocarcinoma resistance to chemotherapy.
The standard scope of surgery is resection of the affected organ and metastasis. After intervention, the issue of appointment of an adequate course of anti-tumor agents is addressed.
Radiotherapy may be recommended for patients with brain metastases. In modern clinics, the proton therapy is preferred, which is different from the conventional therapy by higher efficiency and safety. The method implies irradiation of pathological zones with beams of heavy particles, i.e. protons. Releasing the energy at a predetermined depth, such beams do not cause damage to healthy tissues, thus eliminating the risk of adverse influence on the sensitive brain structures.
The procedures are conducted daily on an outpatient basis. One session takes 20 to 30 minutes. The course can take up to 30 visits.
After treatment completion, the patients shall be subject to a dynamic follow-up.Hide
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