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Radical Mastectomy for Breast Cancer Treatment in the Best Hospitals in the World

University Hospital Tuebingen

9.2/10
location_onGermany, Tuebingen

Department of Adult and Pediatric Gynecology, Mammology, Obstetrics

According to the Focus magazine, the Department of Adult and Pediatric Gynecology, Mammology, Obstetrics is included in the ranking of the top German departments specializing in obstetrics and breast cancer treatment! The department offers the full range of diagnostics and treatment of diseases of the female reproductive system, breast pathologies. Also, the specialists of the department provide a comprehensive management of pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum care for both mother and child. Key attention is paid to the treatment of female genital cancers, as well as breast cancer treatment. For this purpose, the department has all the modern therapeutic techniques, as well as its our own innovative developments by the department doctors.

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University Hospital Ulm

8.7/10
location_onGermany, Ulm

Department of Obstetrics, Adult and Pediatric Gynecology

The Department of Obstetrics, Adult and Pediatric Gynecology offers the full range of services in these fields and specializes in the diagnostics and treatment of general gynecological diseases, oncological diseases of the female reproductive system, breast, endometrial pathologies and urinary incontinence. In the clinical practice, only proven accurate diagnostic methods and effective therapeutic measures are used. In addition, the department is the Level I Perinatal Center, in which about 3,000 babies are born annually.

Samsung Medical Center Seoul

9.8/10
location_onSouth Korea, Seoul

Department of Adult and Pediatric General Surgery

The Department of Adult and Pediatric General Surgery offers the full range of services in this medical field. The department specializes in gastrointestinal surgery, hepatobiliary surgery, colorectal surgery, breast surgery, endocrine, vascular and pediatric surgery. The department is equipped with the state-of-the-art equipment for performing laparoscopic, minimally invasive and robotic interventions that guarantee excellent treatment results.

University Hospital Frankfurt am Main

10/10
location_onGermany, Frankfurt am Main

Department of Adult and Pediatric Gynecology, Obstetrics and Mammology

According to the Focus magazine, the Department of Adult and Pediatric Gynecology, Obstetrics and Mammology ranks among the top German departments specializing in the provision of obstetric services and breast cancer treatment! The department offers all diagnostic and therapeutic options for patients of all ages with diseases of the female reproductive system, mammary gland, as well as provides the comprehensive pregnancy management, childbirth and postpartum care in accordance with the highest standards of modern obstetrics. One of the priority focuses of the department’s work is the treatment of oncopathology in women. All specialists have excellent qualifications and tremendous experience, and therefore they achieve successful results even in extremely difficult clinical cases.

Charite University Hospital Berlin

9/10
location_onGermany, Berlin

Department of Adult and Pediatric Gynecology, Mammology

According to the Focus magazine, the Department of Adult and Pediatric Gynecology, Mammology ranks among the top German medical facilities in the fields of its specialization! The department offers all options of modern medicine for the diagnostics and treatment of diseases of the female reproductive organs and breast. Of particular interest is the treatment of cancers of the female reproductive organs and breast (certification of the German Cancer Society). In addition, the department's doctors have exceptional competence in the treatment of gynecological problems in children of all age groups, including surgical correction of congenital malformations of the reproductive organs. The department is proud of its outstanding treatment results achieved thanks to the professional skills of doctors and excellent technical base.

University Hospital Muenster

9.8/10
location_onGermany, Muenster

Department of Mammology

The Department of Mammology offers the full range of interdisciplinary early diagnostics, surgical and conservative treatment of all diseases and pathologies of the mammary gland in women and men. The department specializes in the treatment of benign and malignant breast tumors and it is a recognized Breast Cancer Center in Muenster. When providing the diagnostics and treatment, the doctors use all modern techniques and the very latest medical advances.

University Hospital Erlangen

9.1/10
location_onGermany, Erlangen

Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Mammology

According to the Focus magazine, the Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Mammology ranks among the top German departments specializing in obstetrics and breast cancer treatment! The department offers the full range of services in its areas of specialization and is one of the largest medical facilities of this kind in Germany. Of particular interest is the treatment of oncopathology of the female reproductive system, including breast cancer, first-class obstetric care and comprehensive pregnancy management, gynecologic endocrinology and reproductive medicine. A highly competent team of doctors, who has tremendous experience and keeps abreast of the cutting-edge medical innovations, cares about the health of patients.

University Hospital Halle (Saale)

9.6/10
location_onGermany, Halle

Department of Gynecology and Mammology

According to the Focus magazine, the Department of Gynecology and Mammology ranks among the top German departments specializing in breast cancer treatment! The department offers the full range of accurate diagnostics, conservative and surgical treatment of diseases of the female reproductive system, breast. The department’s state-of-art infrastructure, advanced diagnostic equipment and the highest professionalism of doctors allow for the achievement of excellent treatment results.

University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf

9.2/10
location_onGermany, Hamburg

Department of Gynecology and Mammology

According to the Focus magazine, the Department of Gynecology and Mammology ranks among the top German departments specializing in breast cancer treatment! The department offers the full range of diagnostic and therapeutic services in its areas of specialization. Due to its successful clinical activities, the department has the status of a supraregional Competence Center for Surgical and Conservative Gynecologic Oncology, as well as of the leading Breast Cancer Center. All therapeutic measures meet the modern standards of both national and international specialized societies.

University Hospital RWTH Aachen

8.9/10
location_onGermany, Aachen

Department of Gynecology, Mammology and Obstetrics

According to the Focus magazine, the Department of Gynecology, Mammology and Obstetrics ranks among the top German medical facilities specializing in breast cancer treatment and provision of obstetric services! The department provides all modern medical services in the fields of its specialization. The gynecologists treat both general and oncological diseases of the female reproductive sphere. Should surgical treatment be required, minimally invasive techniques will be used. The department's mammologists specialize in the treatment of breast cancer using all the classic and innovative therapeutic options. The department is also the Level I Perinatal Center, in which the patient receives the highest quality pregnancy management, comfortable childbirth and postpartum care.

University Hospital Würzburg

9.2/10
location_onGermany, Würzburg

Department of Adult and Pediatric Gynecology, Mammology and Obstetrics

The Department of Adult and Pediatric Gynecology, Mammology and Obstetrics offers the diagnostics and treatment of all gynecological diseases. The department specializes in the treatment of breast cancer and cancer of the female reproductive organs. All traditional and modern conservative and surgical methods are used for this purpose. The department also provides reliable and individual obstetric services at the Center for Mother and Child and offers all methods of prenatal diagnostics.

University Hospital Rechts der Isar Munich

9.8/10
location_onGermany, Munich

Department of Gynecology, Mammology, Obstetrics and Perinatal Medicine

As the center of advanced medicine, the Department of Gynecology, Mammology, Obstetrics and Perinatal Medicine offers the full range of services in these fields, providing patients with optimal treatment based on the latest scientific achievements and innovative technologies. The scope of the department's tasks includes the diagnosis and treatment of all gynecological diseases, breast pathologies, as well as the management of pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum care for the mother and baby, elimination of fertility problems.

University Hospital Heidelberg

9.8/10
location_onGermany, Heidelberg

Department of Mammology

The Department of Mammology offers the full range of modern diagnostics and treatment of breast diseases. Of particular interest to the department's specialists is breast cancer therapy. More than 600 patients with such a diagnosis are treated here annually. The treatment is based on an individual approach, the use of advanced techniques, which often allow the doctor to avoid the radical resection.

University Hospital Duesseldorf

9.5/10
location_onGermany, Duesseldorf

Department of Adult and Pediatric Gynecology, Obstetrics and Mammology

According to the Focus magazine rating, the Department of Adult and Pediatric Gynecology, Obstetrics and Mammology ranks among the top German departments specializing in breast cancer treatment! The department offers the full range of services in these medical fields. In the field of gynecology, it provides the diagnostics and treatment of all pathologies of the female reproductive system, including the gynecological problems in girls aged from 0 to 18 years. The department's obstetricians provide quality care for expectant mothers before, during and after pregnancy. The department's scope of activities also includes the management of high-risk pregnancies. The key focus of clinical activities is the treatment of oncological diseases of the female genital organs, including breast cancer.

University Hospital of Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich

10/10
location_onGermany, Munich

Breast Center

According to the Focus magazine rating, the Breast Center ranks among the top medical institutions in Germany, specializing in breast cancer treatment! It provides the advanced diagnostics and effective treatment of all benign and malignant breast diseases in women and men. The priority focus is breast cancer therapy at both early and progressive stages. The doctors of the department have in their arsenal a variety of innovative medical and surgical methods, which provide the optimal results.

Memorial Bahcelievler Hospital Istanbul

9.2/10
location_onTurkey, Istanbul

Department of Mammology

The Department of Mammology offers the full service range for the prevention, diagnostics and treatment of breast diseases in women. The department's medical team admits patients with benign and malignant breast pathologies. The focus of the specialists is on the therapy of breast cancer – one of the most common types of oncology in the world. In most cases, surgical resection of the tumor is the basis for the treatment of breast malignant neoplasms. The department's doctors give preference to innovative, sparing surgical methods, which allow them to cure oncology and at the same time preserve the breast. Since cancer is the severe diagnosis and strongly affects the psycho-emotional state of patients, the department also provides competent psychological assistance.

Surgery is the main treatment method for breast cancer. Usually the doctor removes the tumor and healthy tissues around it. In some cases, usually with large neoplasms, the breast must be removed completely . This type of surgery is called a mastectomy. Abroad, the operation can be performed without the significant health risks, with good clinical and aesthetic results.

History of mastectomy

Radical mastectomy is the first treatment for breast cancer in history. It was developed by the world famous surgeon William Halsted and described as early as 1894. The surgeon suggested removing the mammary gland alone with the pectoralis major muscle and axillary, subclavian, and subscapularis fatty tissue. Willie Meyer also suggested removing the pectoralis minor muscle. Today we know this operation as the Halsted radical mastectomy.

Despite the large volume of removed tissues, this surgical intervention did not always lead to the patient's recovery. In 70% of cases, breast cancer was detected at a stage that is today called the third stage. Therefore, in the middle of the twentieth century, the most radical variant of mastectomy was developed, i.e. the Urban-Kholdin operation. Nevertheless, it did not become widespread, as it led to severe health consequences and did not show an increase in survival compared with Halsted radical mastectomy.

At the end of the 20th century, the approach to the surgical treatment of breast cancer was revised. Clinical experience and data from numerous clinical trials have demonstrated that most cases of cancer recur after radical operations due to the presence of metastatic foci, while the proportion of local recurrence does not exceed 20%. Therefore, in the 21st century, most breast cancer surgeries are organ-preserving ones. Doctors perform lumpectomy or sectoral resection. During such interventions only the tumor is removed with the capture of 1-2 cm of healthy tissues. Additionally, an intervention is performed on the lymphatic collector, and then a course of radiation therapy starts.

Indications for mastectomy

In the developed countries, surgeons perform mastectomy less and less frequently. With a significant volume of surgery, higher health risks, and poor aesthetic outcomes at the early stages of breast cancer, total mastectomy does not have any advantages in patient survival compared to organ-preserving surgeries.

Therefore, today only 20% of women undergo mastectomy. Most operations are sectoral resections and their the most sparing type – lumpectomy.

Indications for mastectomy include the following.

Advanced stages of breast cancer. If the primary tumor is larger than 5 cm and spreads into the chest wall, then doctors may give preference to mastectomy over an organ-preserving surgery.

Small breasts. If the primary tumor is less than 5 cm in diameter, but it occupies the entire mammary gland, mastectomy is indicated.

Inflammatory breast cancer. This is an aggressive type of cancer. It is poorly visible on mammography, which makes it difficult to make the precise diagnosis. Immediately after tumor detection, stage 3 is diagnosed because the inflammatory breast cancer invades the skin. It grows rapidly and metastasizes early. Every third woman already has distant metastases at the time of diagnosis making. Inflammatory breast cancer usually requires a total mastectomy. Chemotherapy is sometimes given before surgery to reduce the swelling.

Genetic mutations. Some women have gene mutations that dramatically increase their breast cancer risk. Organ-preserving surgery is not the best option for them, because the tumor may recur in the future. Bilateral mastectomy (removal of both breasts) is the best option to ensure breast cancer remission.

Impossibility of performing radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is always performed after a breast-conserving surgery, while after a mastectomy it is not indicated. If a woman does not plan to undergo radiation therapy after surgery, then it is better to remove the breast completely in order to reduce the risk of local recurrence of breast cancer. Mastectomy is also performed when there are contraindications to radiation therapy (e.g. in autoimmune connective tissue disorders or pregnancy). Sometimes women refuse radiation therapy as they want to avoid its side effects. Another possible reason for refusal is inability to attend radiation therapy sessions during 6 weeks.

Two or more breast tumors. If two foci of the oncological process are located at a distance, it is more efficient to remove the entire breast.

Sometimes the surgeon performs a lumpectomy initially, but then expands the operation to a mastectomy. This is possible if cancer cells are found at the edges of the removed tissue.

Types of mastectomy

Mastectomy is not a single operation, but a term that means that the breast is removed completely. Other tissues are often removed along with it. To perform mastectomy the surgeon chooses from dozens of its types. Basic operations are as follows.

Radical mastectomy. It involves the removal of the entire mammary gland with the capture of adjacent tissues: muscles and adipose tissue. This type of mastectomy includes Halsted and Urban operations. Today they are used rarely, only at the advanced breast cancer stages, when the tumor reaches a large size and spreads into muscles.

Modified radical mastectomy. The most common type of mastectomy the surgeon may perform. The most widespread operations are Patey and Madden mastectomy. They are less extensive, preserve the pectoralis minor muscle, and do not remove all fatty tissue.

Skin sparing mastectomy. With this operation, the aesthetic results of mastectomy improve significantly. Surgical intervention allows preserving the skin, and in some cases, the nipple-areola complex. Immediately after a sparing mastectomy, breast reconstruction can be performed with the patient's own tissues or implants.

Simple mastectomy. It is performed rarely. The intervention involves removing the breast while preserving fatty tissue and muscles. The doctor also performs a biopsy of the sentinel lymph nodes to identify possible foci of regional metastasizing.

Breast reconstruction

For most women, it is important not only to cure cancer, but also to maintain an attractive appearance. That is why the reconstructive surgeries are performed to restore the breast. Abroad, they are safe and provide excellent aesthetic results.

Reconstruction can be immediate or delayed. One-stage reconstruction is performed immediately during the mastectomy. Delayed surgery is performed in 6-12 months.

It is possible to restore the mammary gland with patient’s own tissues (flap plastic) or with silicone implants. Using a patient's own tissues gives better and longer-lasting results, but requires additional surgical intervention in the donor area. The doctor harvests the material for breast reconstruction from the abdomen, back, thigh or buttocks.

Health risks

The more extensive the surgery, the worse the possible health consequences. Radical mastectomy is more likely to cause complications than the modified radical mastectomy.

After surgery, the main complications are pain and swelling. Pain medications are prescribed to reduce pain. Early postoperative complications of breast cancer treatment sometimes occur:

  • Infections with wound suppuration
  • Bleeding
  • Lymphorrhea

Basically, surgery is combined with the removal of lymph nodes, since mastectomy is usually performed at stages 2-3 of the cancer. Therefore, most women have lymphorrhea after surgery. A prolonged flow of lymph, over 4 weeks, is considered a pathology.

Health risks are somewhat higher if breast reconstruction is performed. With one-stage reconstruction, complications are more common than with the delayed reconstruction. Necrosis of transplanted tissues is possible. During reconstruction with implants, capsular contractures may develop (i.e. the formation of dense tissues around the silicone implant).

Why is it better to treat breast cancer abroad?

Well-equipped hospitals and highly qualified doctors are waiting for you abroad. The best clinics in the world apply modern approaches to surgery, new types of radiation therapy, individually selected drug treatment for breast cancer.

Several reasons why it is better to have mastectomy abroad are:

  • Establishing the precise diagnosis before surgery in order to select the best treatment regimen
  • High quality of performing mastectomy with a low risk of local recurrence of breast cancer
  • Minimal health risks
  • Minimal volume of surgery (the doctor does not remove much healthy tissues, which avoids severe complications)
  • Immediate reconstruction of the breast is possible, which guarantees a good aesthetic result
  • When performing a mastectomy, the surgeon preserves the skin and the nipple-areola complex whenever possible
  • High quality of care after surgery
  • Comfortable conditions of stay in the hospital

You can travel to Germany or Israel to perform a mastectomy for breast cancer. When making a decision, it is worth considering the level of medicine, the specialization of the hospital, and the cost of treatment. Usually prices are higher in economically developed countries. If the main criterion for choosing a clinic for you is the cost of treatment, it is better to go to Turkey or India.

Treatment abroad with Booking Health

To undergo a mastectomy abroad, you may use the Booking Health service. On the Booking Health portal you can find information about hospitals, doctors, and prices. You can also compare the cost of treatment in different hospitals and book a medical program at the best price. Booking Health will arrange a trip abroad for you. Services and benefits of the company include the following:

  • Choosing the best hospital for breast cancer surgery with the option of breast reconstruction with patient’s own tissues or implants
  • Direct communication with the surgeon from the selected clinic
  • Reducing the waiting time for surgery and making an appointment at the hospital on dates that are convenient for you
  • Lower cost of treatment; prices for breast cancer surgery are reduced due to the absence of additional coefficients for foreign patients
  • Reliable information about your expenses, the cost of treatment and individual medical procedures, funds remaining in the account
  • Elaboration of the medical program without the need to repeat a previously performed diagnostic procedures
  • Elaboration of the medical program for confirming the diagnosis, if necessary
  • Communication with the hospital after breast cancer surgery
  • Purchase and shipping of drugs
  • Organization of additional diagnostics or cancer treatment abroad

Booking Health specialists provide quality services. We will book a hotel and airline tickets for you, organize a transfer from the airport to the hospital and back.




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