Breast cancer is a tumor, that forms in the breast cells. Breast cancer usually originates in milk ducts, which are responsible for the creation of milk when a woman had a baby. Breast cancer is considered the most widespread tumor among women, because it occupies almost 15% percent of all cancers among female population. It can either be benign or malignant. Interesting fact: breast cancer is much more widespread in developed countries than in developing areas. This can be explained by long
because life expectancy in developed countries is much longer and breast cancer is usually detected in women over 55 years of age. Also eating habits and lifestyle an influence the occurrence rate of breast cancer. There are various types of breast cancer. Most common one is lobular carcinoma. It originates in lobules, milk producing glands. Lobules are connected with nipple. Breast cancer may be invasive and non-invasive. Invasive cancer can spread metastases into other organs while non-invasive can`t.
Usually breast cancer does not manifest itself clearly until it becomes progressed. Signs of breast cancer include:
Existence of these symptoms does not necessarily mean that there is a malignant tumor. Many women can have lump in the breast which is not dangerous. However, they must have regular check ups. During the regular diagnosis they will be able to understand the nature of lump and choose the right treatment course.
Most significant factor for developing breast cancer is advance age. This statement is substantiated by the fact that 85% of breast cancer cases occur after a woman is 55-60. Menopausal women are at risk too. Genetic predisposition also plays an important role. If a woman had a relative member with chest cancer she is in the risk group and she must be checked regularly. Also women With family history of ovarian cancer need to be on cautious side. Sometimes breast cancer is caused by other types of cancer, most often it is ovarian cancer. Also the rate of cancer recurrence is high in a woman with previous history of breast cancer. Young girls with early menstrual cycles (11 years old or younger) are also in risk group. The same goes to women who had been under the estrogen exposure. Sometimes obesity can cause breast cancer. Alcohol and smoking contribute to the development of malignant tumor. Mortality rate increase in women who had breast cancer and plastic surgery since breast implants - not clear please review.
Clinical breast exam can detect lump in breast. The size of the lump mainly depends on the breast cancer stage. Doctor can also notice if there is any kind of discharge from nipples or if the nipples have strange form. During Physical exam, doctor can check for presence of other change s in breast.
Another diagnostic method is biopsy of breast tissue containing malignant cells. Mammography is the most common diagnostic method of breast cancer, for the reason that it can detect the malignant formation.
In most cases women undergo breast cancer surgery to remove malignant formation. There are different types of breast cancer surgery:
Lumpectomy is a removal of the affected tissue. In this case doctors do not remove the breast muscles. This is done only if cancer is not metastazide largely and is subjected to surgical intervention.
Breast cancer mastectomy usually indicates removal of breast. Sometimes only nodules and lymphs are removed during this type of surgery. Radical removal also involves removing of muscles.
Breast cancer reconstruction involves the recreation of the breast. It can be performed right after another surgery - mastectomy. Usually reconstruction is done for aesthetic purposes. Breast implants and tissue from other body parts can be used for breast reconstruction. They can also use implants.
Other types of breast cancer treatment include radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Sometimes these two types are combined to give better results and provide significant effect. Radiation therapy usually aims to destroy the cancerous cells by the special radioactive beam. It may be performed sometime after surgical intervention and the course of chemotherapy. Usually it is done one or two months after the surgery. Radiation sessions last only a few minutes, but a person may need to undergo several sessions in order to get rid of malignant cells completely. Another type of radioactive intervention is breast brachytherapy, which prevents the recurrence rate of breast cancer in future. It last about a week and it gives very good results.
Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill the malignant cells. Sometimes patients take drugs before the surgery so that the amount of malignant cells will be less. It may be complicated for a surgeon to identify and heal all malignant cells, that`s why doctors do everything they can to decrease its number. Nevertheless, such drugs are very powerful and they can have certain side effects. For instance, people who had them lose their hair, have crumbly nails, frequent fatigue, and nausea.. They can also feel nauseated. Usually people who underwent chemotherapy and radioactive intervention experience hot flashes, when they are hot even if it`s cold. Such flashes finish after the completion of chemotherapy course. Additional chemotherapy course may be administered in case of presence of malignant cells after the surgery.
If woman has genetic predisposition to breast cancer she needs to lead a particularly healthy lifestyle to prevent the appearance of neoplastic cells. Preventive measures include giving up of smoking, certain dietary restrictions, and also limited consumption of an alcohol. Women should also avoid obesity, which can be the cause of breast cancer in future. They need to avoid lifting weights and not have hard physical work.Hide
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