Adrenal gland cancer is mostly benign tumor of hormonally active adrenal gland. Even though the adrenal gland cancer is not very dangerous, it has a capacity for malignant transformation in future. Usually adrenal adenoma is detected by chance during the regular examination of the abdominal cavity. The adrenal glands are a pair of endocrine glands, that perform various functions in human body. They are situated right above the kidneys. The main reason for adrenal gland malfunction is the hormones insuffciency. Different endocrinal diseases also lead to various problems with this part of human body.
Before beginning treatment the doctor needs to know for sure that the symptoms are not caused by the tumor in the brain, because adrenal cancer and brain cancer usually have similiar symptoms.
The prognosis for adrenal cancer is favorable with 60-70% survival rate. The exact causes for adrenal gland cancer are still unknown to the modern science. It is assumed that heredity plays the main role in the development of adrenal cancer. Cancers of the adrenal glands are rare that`s why they are not researched enough.
There are benign and malignant tumors, which can be primary or metastatic. Primary ones do not spread to other organs.
Adrenal cancer is characterized by the following features:
2) Fast and aggressive tumor growth
3) Rapid metastasis growth to distant organs
The most common adrenal gland cancer symptoms are as follows
The disease is also manifested by the following adrenal cancer symptoms:
In the progressed stage the tumor can also result in diabetes, kidney disease and sexual dysfunction.
Complex diagnosis of adrenal cancer includes consultation with a doctor - an endocrinologist. The patient also submits blood and urine tests and undergoes instrumental examination. The screening methods of diagnosis usually involve ultrasound.Ultrasound is the most common diagnosis of adrenal cancer. Ultrasound helps to detect adrenal tumors at an early stage which is very important for the treatment. Modern high-fi equipment is used to determine the exact location of adrenal glands cancer .
Computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are also the methods of diagnosis.
In some cases radiography research is needed to eliminate the process of tumor metastasis to the lungs.
Benign tumors of adrenal gland typically develop without clinical symptoms and are discovered by chance during the routine inspection. Malignant cancer has a dubious prognosis, which is improved by early diagnosis and treatment.
Surgery is used during the treatment of benign and malignant adrenal tumors. Surgery may be either abdominal or endoscopic - each of the surgical approach has its advantages and disadvantages.
Surgery associated with adrenal tumor pathology is one of the most complicated. Therefore, the operation must be performed by an experienced and highly qualified surgeon.
The most modern and moderate method of adrenal gland cancer treatment is endoscopic surgery. Endoscopic surgery is performed under the control of video equipment, which is provided by a flexible endoscope. The endoscope is inserted into small incisions or punctures (ranging in size from 0.5 to 1 cm). Punctures during endoscopic surgery are created on the abdomen of the patient.
Usually the surgery removes all of the affected adrenal glands (in case of benign tumor).
If the tumor is malignant, then the removal of the adrenal gland is performed under general anesthesia. Depending on the pathology one or two of the adrenal glands are removed.
2) Radiation therapy
Radiation therapy is a well-known method for treatment of adrenal tumors.
In most cases radiation therapy must be used with great precaution. Since the kidney tissue is highly sensitive, even small doses of ionizing radiation may adversely affect its functions. In past few years the treatment of "Cyber-knife" is becoming increasingly famous, but it can be performed only in the best hospitals of the world.
Chemotherapy is an effective treatment option for certain types of adrenal tumors. Usually, this treatment is used to reduce the further development of the tumor.
Sometimes specific chemotherapy drugs are prescribed by the doctor to suppress the symptoms of cancer associated with hormone activity of hormone-dependent tumors.
Rarely the doctors prefer not to use ant treatment for tumor and observe its dynamics.
Such method is used when tumor is "clinically silent" and does not release hormones.
It is also used when tumor has a diameter less than 3 centimeters.Hide
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