People suffer from obesity, if there is a considerable excess of fat in their body. It develops as a result of systematic overeating and lack of excercise. Most obese people have a hereditary predisposition. Often obesity is diagnosed after 40 years, but overweight may begin to appear much earlier. The style of modern life may provoke the diseases caused by obesity even at 20 years old. 90% of obesity is caused by overeating and 5% - by metabolic processes.
As a rule, the main cause for obesity is the dysfunctioning of the energy balance. A person has the problems with the energy balance, if there is a big difference between the energy expenditure and energy intake. Women can experience obesity during pregnancy, lactation and menopause. There are two stages of the disease - a progressive and stable.
The big amount of calories received by the body and not burnt during the day convert into fat. The fat deposits storage in the body (mainly in the abdominal wall and internal organs). The increase of fat reserves leads to impaired functioning of many body systems. Changes in eating behavior can violate the cortisol secretion rate and slow the acceleration of the metabolism.
People suffering from obesity may in a long run develop diabetes of the second type with the corresponding symptoms:
According to the degree of weight gain there are three types of obesity:
1 degree - 30-35 kg above the norm;
2 degree - 35-40 kg above the norm;
3 degree - 40 or more kg above the norm.
The obesity needs to be treated by two types of doctors - nutritionists and endocrinologists. First of all the doctor needs to identify the reason. If the reason for obesity is hormones, impaired metabolism or poor nutrition. The doctor asks the patient about what he usually eats during the week and then he sends the patient for an additional study that will evaluate the performance of the hormonal system of the body. First of all, the endocrinologist determines the level of thyroid hormones (thyroxine, triiodothyronine) and the level of glucose in the blood. If necessary, the doctor may conduct a study of all organs and systems, to see how they are affected by obesity.
Non-drug obesity treatment: rational low-calorie diet and gradually increasing physical activity.
Drug obesity treatment: the appointment of drugs that suppress the appetite and reduce the absorption of nutrients in the body, as well as drugs that normalize hormones.
The following surgeries apply for obesity:
Obese liposuction - removal of tissues containing the fat from under the skin;
abdominoplasty - removal of sagging belly;
bypass surgery "turn off" the digestion of the small intestine;
gastric ring reduces the volume of the stomack and thus speeds up the saturation time.
The most famous surgery for weight loss is liposuction. Liposuction is cosmetic surgery, that changes the nature of fat in a particular area (or multiple areas) of the body, such as the abdomen, thighs, buttocks. Liposuction is not a method of treatment of obesity, since it does not change the pathogenesis of the disease and does not remove significant amounts of fat. However, the visual effect of liposuction for the figurecan be very impressive.
Women often turn to liposuction to remove the so-called fat deposits in the buttocks, upper arm, back, calves, knees and so on.
Men in most cases want to remove deposits on the neck, chest, back, waist, abdomen and buttocks. A patient may undergo liposuction only in such cases:
Liposuction can not be perormed for for people with acute and severe chronic diseases of internal organs, diseases of the circulatory system and diabetes. Liposuction is extremely dangerous to the health and there may be possible infectious complications. For 10 days before the liposuction a patient is prohibited from taking drugs that affect blood clotting. He is Smoking is not allowed as well. It is recommended to undergo bowel cleansing procedure and pass all necessary tests. The duration of the procedure ranges from 30 minutes to several hours. Depending on the functional state of the body, the patient is given the treatment under the local or general anesthesia.
Morbid obesity is a type of obesity, when the body stops functioning normally because of the excessive weight gain. Morbid obesity diagnosis usually estimates body mass index (BMI = body weight (kg) / (height in meters) ²). The patient with a weight of 40 kg more then norm has a morbid obesity.
Treatment for morbid obesity involves changes in the diet and physical activity. The doctor may also prescrive a special medication to help the patient lose weight. However, the medicines for the treatment of obesity are limited and they also have significant side effects. All patient with morbid obesity are advised to reduce their daily calories intake to 1600-1800 cal per day. Also they may particularly benefit from such physical exercise as treadmill, exercise bike. Physical therapy needs to be selected individually for each patient.
Medicine must be prescribed if the patient`s weight is 50kg more its norm. These drugs block intestinal lipases reducing the absorption of fats and causing the weight loss. The side effect of this treatment is increased defecation. Sometimes, there may be problem during the defecation and pain in the gut (the type of intestinal colic). In this case the medicine use needs to be stopped.
Timely initiated systematic measures for the treatment of obesity can bring good results. For the prevention of obesity a person needs to consume the number of calories which he can burn during the day. It’s recommended also to practice power walking, swimming and jogging. The cardio exercises applied systematically can reduce the body weight by 10 in several months. During the meal the carbs and proteins should be eaten separately. Carbs must include only 30% of daily nutriotion. If the person keeps gaining weight, he needs to draw individual weight loss program. Such programs may be individually composed by special centers for disease control and prevention obesity. The most famous obesity treatment center is WeightWatchers, which helps the patients reduce the calories intake. Sometimes the change of climate and new work environment contribute the weight loss.
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