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People suffer from obesity, if there is a considerable excess of fat in their body. It develops as a result of systematic overeating and lack of excercise. Most obese people have a hereditary predisposition. Often obesity is diagnosed after 40 years, but overweight may begin to appear much earlier. The rhythm of modern life may provoke the diseases caused by obesity even at 20 years old. 90% of obesity is caused by overeating and 5% - by metabolic processes.
The main cause for obesity is the dysfunctioning of the energy balance. A person has the problems with the energy balance, if there is a big difference between the energy expenditure and energy intake. Women can experience obesity during pregnancy, lactation and menopause. There are two stages of the disease - a progressive and stable. The big amount of calories received by the body and not burnt during the day convert into fat. The fat deposits storage in the body (mainly in the abdominal wall and internal organs). The increase of fat reserves leads to impaired functioning of many body systems. Changes in eating behavior can violate the cortisol secretion rate and slow the acceleration of the metabolism.
Factors, that contribute to development of obesity, are:
People who suffer from obesity may in a long run develop diabetes of the second type with the corresponding symptoms:
According to the degree of weight gain there are three types of obesity:
1 degree - 30-35 kg above the norm
2 degree - 35-40 kg above the norm
3 degree - 40 or more kg above the norm
There are two types of doctors that deal with obesity - nutritionists and endocrinologists. They try to understand if the reason for obesity is hormones, impaired metabolism or poor nutrition
The doctor asks the patient about what he usually eats during the week and then he sends the patient for an additional study that will evaluate the performance of the hormonal system of the body. First of all, the endocrinologist determines the level of thyroid hormones (thyroxine, triiodothyronine) and the level of glucose in the blood. If necessary, the doctor may conduct a study of all organs and systems, to see how they are affected by obesity.
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