About the disease
People suffer from obesity, if there is a considerable excess of fat in their body. It develops as a result of systematic overeating and lack of excercise. Most obese people have a hereditary predisposition. Often obesity is diagnosed after 40 years, but overweight may begin to appear much earlier. The rhythm of modern life may provoke the diseases caused by obesity even at 20 years old. 90% of obesity is caused by overeating and 5% - by metabolic processes.
The main cause for obesity is the dysfunctioning of the energy balance. A person has the problems with the energy balance, if there is a big difference between the energy expenditure and energy intake. Women can experience obesity during pregnancy, lactation and menopause. There are two stages of the disease - a progressive and stable. The big amount of calories received by the body and not burnt during the day convert into fat. The fat deposits storage in the body (mainly in the abdominal wall and internal organs). The increase of fat reserves leads to impaired functioning of many body systems. Changes in eating behavior can violate the cortisol secretion rate and slow the acceleration of the metabolism.
Factors, that contribute to development of obesity, are:
- Inactive lifestyle
- Genetically determined disorders of enzymatic activity
- Excessive consumption of carbohydrates, fats, salt, sugary and alcoholic drinks)
- Eating at night
- Endocrine diseases
- Psycological eating disorder
- Pregnancy, menopause
- Lack of sleep
- Use of psychotropic and hormonal drugs (steroids, insulin, contraceptive pills
People who suffer from obesity may in a long run develop diabetes of the second type with the corresponding symptoms:
According to the degree of weight gain there are three types of obesity:
1 degree - 30-35 kg above the norm
2 degree - 35-40 kg above the norm
3 degree - 40 or more kg above the norm
- Increased body weight
- Fat deposits in various areas of the body: the hips, abdomen and chest
- Shortness of breath on exertion, decreased performance
- Reduced self-esteem and difficulty communicating with other people
- Increased arterial pressure
- Pressing pain in the heart
- Decreased sex drive
- Pain in the joints
There are two types of doctors that deal with obesity - nutritionists and endocrinologists. They try to understand if the reason for obesity is hormones, impaired metabolism or poor nutrition
The doctor asks the patient about what he usually eats during the week and then he sends the patient for an additional study that will evaluate the performance of the hormonal system of the body. First of all, the endocrinologist determines the level of thyroid hormones (thyroxine, triiodothyronine) and the level of glucose in the blood. If necessary, the doctor may conduct a study of all organs and systems, to see how they are affected by obesity.
- Non-drug obesity treatment: rational low-calorie diet and gradually increasing physical activity.
- Drug-obesity treatment: the appointment of drugs that suppress the appetite and reduce the absorption of nutrients in the body, as well as drugs that normalize hormones.
- Gastroplasty with laparoscopic gastric banding is a less invasive surgery, during which a surgeon implants into the belly silicone band, which is attahced to the upper part of the stomach. This band controls the amount of food a stomach can hold and keeps a person from overeating.
- Laparoscopic or open surgery sleeve gastroplasty is a type of surgery, also aimed to restrtict the amount of food a person can eat and thus help him/her lose excessive weight. A surgeon created little pouch in the inner stomach curve to cause a quicker feeling of fullness.
- Laparoscopic or open gastric bypass surgery "turns off" the digestion of the small intestine to help the person lose weight by creating bypass.
- Setting of the gastric balloon is performed to reduce the volume of the stomach. Gastric baloon is most often filled with saline solution. It is guided into stomach with endoscope.
- Laparoscopic or open biliopancreatic bypass is a surgery, when stomach becomes smaller and digestion normalizes. During this surgery bypass is created around the part of small intestine, which allows the patient consume less amount of calories.
- Abdominoplasty is removal of sagging belly.
- Gastric ring reduces the volume of the stomach and thus speeds up the saturation time.
- Liposuction is cosmetic surgery, that changes the nature of fat in a particular area (or multiple areas) of the body, such as the abdomen, thighs, buttocks. Liposuction is not a method of treatment of obesity, since it does not change the pathogenesis of the disease and does not remove significant amounts of fat. However, the visual effect of liposuction for the figurecan be very impressive. Women often turn to liposuction to remove the so-called fat deposits in the buttocks, upper arm, back, calves, knees and so on. Men in most cases want to remove deposits on the neck, chest, back, waist, abdomen and buttocks. Liposuction can not be perormed for for people with acute and severe chronic diseases of internal organs, diseases of the circulatory system and diabetes. Liposuction is extremely dangerous to the health and there may be possible infectious complications. For 10 days before the liposuction a patient is prohibited from taking drugs that affect blood clotting. He is not allowed smoking as well. It is recommended to undergo bowel cleansing procedure and pass all necessary tests. The duratio of the procedure ranges from 30 minutes to several hours. Depending on the functional state of the body, the patient is given local or general anesthesia. There are such types of liposuction as subcutaneous liposuction and laser liposuction. The first type is performed during open surgery, the second one - with the help of laser.