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Treatment of Vulvar Cancer

Cost for treatment

Diagnosis of vulvar cancer
688
Surgical treatment of cancer of the vulva (partial vulvectomy)
4093.52
Surgical treatment of vulvar cancer with radical vulvectomy
4142.59

University Hospital Rechts der Isar Munich

9.8/10
location_onGermany, Munich

Department of Gynecology, Mammology and Obstetrics

The University Hospital Rechts der Isar Munich was founded in 1834. It combines long traditions with the very latest advances in modern medicine. The medical facility includes 33 specialized departments and 20 interdisciplinary centers, where patients can receive top-class medical care in all medical fields. The hospital annuall
Diagnosis of vulvar cancer
2792.7
Surgical treatment of cancer of the vulva (partial vulvectomy)
12621.58
Surgical treatment of vulvar cancer with radical vulvectomy
12520.31

University Hospital Tuebingen

9.2/10
location_onGermany, Tuebingen

Department of Adult and Pediatric Gynecology, Mammology, Obstetrics

According to the prestigious medical publication Focus, the University Hospital Tuebingen ranks among the top five German hospitals! The hospital was founded in 1805, therefore it is proud of its long history, unique experience, and outstanding achievements in the field of medical care, as well as research and teaching activitie
Diagnosis of vulvar cancer
2725.88
Surgical treatment of cancer of the vulva (partial vulvectomy)
12876.31
Surgical treatment of vulvar cancer with radical vulvectomy
12830.38

University Hospital Ulm

8.7/10
location_onGermany, Ulm

Department of Obstetrics, Adult and Pediatric Gynecology

The University Hospital Ulm started its activities 35 years ago and during this time it has become one of the most prestigious medical institutions in Europe. The hospital is famous for its numerous discoveries and the world-class achievements in medicine and pharmaceuticals. The medical facility has 29 specialized departments a
Diagnosis of vulvar cancer
2590.16
Surgical treatment of cancer of the vulva (partial vulvectomy)
12535.97
Surgical treatment of vulvar cancer with radical vulvectomy
12745.81

University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus Dresden

9.1/10
location_onGermany, Dresden

Department of Adult and Pediatric Gynecology, Mammology, Obstetrics and Reproductive Medicine

According to the reputable Focus magazine, the University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus Dresden ranks among the top five German hospitals! The hospital is the benchmark for modern high-quality medicine. Positioning itself as a maximum care medical facility, the hospital represents all medical fields. There are 26 specialized depart
Diagnosis of vulvar cancer
3333.49
Surgical treatment of cancer of the vulva (partial vulvectomy)
15677.36
Surgical treatment of vulvar cancer with radical vulvectomy
15234.71

University Hospital Heidelberg

9.8/10
location_onGermany, Heidelberg

Department of Obstetrics, Adult and Pediatric Gynecology

According to Focus magazine, the University Hospital Heidelberg ranks among the top five hospitals in Germany! The hospital is one of the most advanced and reputable medical institutions not only in Germany, but throughout Europe. There are more than 43 specialized departments and 13 medical institutes, which cover all fields of
Diagnosis of vulvar cancer
0
Surgical treatment of cancer of the vulva (partial vulvectomy)
0
Surgical treatment of vulvar cancer with radical vulvectomy
0

University Hospital Frankfurt am Main

10/10

Department of Adult and Pediatric Gynecology, Obstetrics and Mammology

According to the reputable Focus magazine, the University Hospital Frankfurt am Main ranks among the top German medical facilities! The hospital was founded in 1914 and today is a well-known German medical facility, which combines rich traditions and scientific innovations. A medical team of more than 6,500 employees cares about
Diagnosis of vulvar cancer
2833.41
Surgical treatment of cancer of the vulva (partial vulvectomy)
12086
Surgical treatment of vulvar cancer with radical vulvectomy
11892.86

Charite University Hospital Berlin

9/10
location_onGermany, Berlin

Department of Adult and Pediatric Gynecology, Mammology

According to the authoritative Focus magazine, the Charite University Hospital Berlin occupies the first place in the rating of the top German medical facilities! The hospital is one of the largest and leading university medical complexes in Europe. The hospital in Germany provides modern diagnostics and treatment of patients, a
Diagnosis of vulvar cancer
3695.76
Surgical treatment of cancer of the vulva (partial vulvectomy)
17173.42
Surgical treatment of vulvar cancer with radical vulvectomy
17141.05

University Hospital of Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich

10/10
location_onGermany, Munich

Department of Obstetrics, Adult and Pediatric Gynecology

According to the Focus magazine, the University Hospital of Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich is regularly ranked among the best medical institutions in Germany! The hospital is the largest multidisciplinary medical facility, as well as a leading research and training center in Germany and Europe. The hospital is proud of i
Diagnosis of vulvar cancer
2792.7
Surgical treatment of cancer of the vulva (partial vulvectomy)
13300.18
Surgical treatment of vulvar cancer with radical vulvectomy
13470.35

University Hospital Erlangen

9.1/10
location_onGermany, Erlangen

Department of Adult and Pediatric Gynecology, Mammology, Obstetrics

According to the Focus magazine, University Hospital Erlangen ranks among the best medical facilities in Germany! The hospital is one of the leading healthcare facilities in Bavaria and offers top-class medical care distinguished by the close intertwining of clinical activities with research and training of medical students. The
Diagnosis of vulvar cancer
2663.24
Surgical treatment of cancer of the vulva (partial vulvectomy)
12737.46
Surgical treatment of vulvar cancer with radical vulvectomy
12789.66

University Hospital Halle (Saale)

9.6/10
location_onGermany, Halle

Department of Gynecology and Mammology

According to the prestigious Focus magazine, the University Hospital Halle (Saale) ranks among the top German medical facilities! The history of the hospital has more than 300 years, and during this time it managed to earn an excellent reputation not only in Germany, but throughout the world. The hospital positions itself as a s
Diagnosis of vulvar cancer
2833.41
Surgical treatment of cancer of the vulva (partial vulvectomy)
11949.24
Surgical treatment of vulvar cancer with radical vulvectomy
12070.34

University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf

9.2/10
location_onGermany, Hamburg

Department of Gynecology and Mammology

According to the Focus magazine, the University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf ranks among the top ten hospitals in Germany! Since its foundation in 1889, the hospital has taken a leading position in the European medical arena and still occupies it until today. A highly competent medical team of more than 11,000 employees takes care
Diagnosis of vulvar cancer
3263.54
Surgical treatment of cancer of the vulva (partial vulvectomy)
15164.76
Surgical treatment of vulvar cancer with radical vulvectomy
15600.11

University Hospital W√ľrzburg

9.2/10
location_onGermany, W√ľrzburg

Department of Adult and Pediatric Gynecology, Mammology and Obstetrics

According to the Focus magazine in 2019, the University Hospital Würzburg ranks among the top national German hospitals! The hospital is one of the oldest medical facilities in Germany. The centuries-old traditions of first-class treatment are combined with the very latest achievements of modern evidence-based medicine and
Diagnosis of vulvar cancer
2778.08
Surgical treatment of cancer of the vulva (partial vulvectomy)
12159.08
Surgical treatment of vulvar cancer with radical vulvectomy
12025.45

University Hospital RWTH Aachen

8.9/10
location_onGermany, Aachen

Department of Gynecology, Mammology and Obstetrics

According to the prestigious Focus magazine, the University Hospital RWTH Aachen ranks among the top German hospitals! As a maximum care university medical facility, the hospital guarantees patients first-class medical services combined with a respectful and human attitude. The hospital integrates all the modern options for the
Diagnosis of vulvar cancer
2986.88
Surgical treatment of cancer of the vulva (partial vulvectomy)
13564.31
Surgical treatment of vulvar cancer with radical vulvectomy
13560.13

University Hospital Duesseldorf

9.5/10
location_onGermany, Duesseldorf

Department of Adult and Pediatric Gynecology, Obstetrics and Mammology

According to the authoritative Focus magazine, the University Hospital Duesseldorf ranks among the top Germany hospitals! The hospital is an excellent example of a combination of high-quality health care, research and teaching activities. With more than 50,000 inpatients and about 300,000 outpatients every year, the hospital is
Diagnosis of vulvar cancer
2951.38
Surgical treatment of cancer of the vulva (partial vulvectomy)
13548.65
Surgical treatment of vulvar cancer with radical vulvectomy
13288.69

University Hospital Muenster

9.8/10
location_onGermany, Muenster

Department of Adult and Pediatric Gynecology, Obstetrics

According to the Focus magazine, the University Hospital Muenster ranks among the top German hospitals! The hospital belongs to the most prestigious medical institutions in Germany. The hospital is distinguished by a high professionalism of its doctors, state-of-the-art technological equipment and the availability of the most ad
Diagnosis of vulvar cancer
2662.2
Surgical treatment of cancer of the vulva (partial vulvectomy)
12134.03
Surgical treatment of vulvar cancer with radical vulvectomy
11994.13

University Hospital Bonn

9.2/10
location_onGermany, Bonn

Department of Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology

According to the authoritative Focus magazine, the University Hospital Bonn ranks among the top ten medical facilities in Germany! The hospital was opened on January 1, 2001, although in fact it inherits the medical facility, which operated at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Bonn. The hospital in Germany combin
Diagnosis of vulvar cancer
2922.15
Surgical treatment of cancer of the vulva (partial vulvectomy)
13472.44
Surgical treatment of vulvar cancer with radical vulvectomy
13192.64
| from Booking Health GmbH

One of the neoplasms women are most susceptible to in menopause, is vulvar cancer. Vulvar cancer includes different types of neoplasms localized on the outer surface of the female genitals.

Content

  1. Types
  2. Symptoms
  3. Metastasizing
  4. Diagnostics
  5. Treatment options
  6. Surgery
  7. Chemotherapy
  8. Radiation therapy
  9. Relapses
  10. Prognosis
  11. Best hospital for treatment abroad
  12. Cost of treatment for vulvar cancer
  13. Treatment abroad with Booking Health

Types

 

Based on the cell type, which vulvar cancer develops from, several diseases are distinguished. The therapeutic tactics of each pathology has its own peculiarities.

Malignant neoplasms are differentiated into two types, including vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and vulvar melanoma.

Symptoms

 

Now let's talk about how vulvar cancer manifests itself. Like most other cancers, vulvar cancer is asymptomatic at the initial stages, without causing severe health manifestations. Typically, women with vulvar cancer can experience certain health issues including:

  • Irritation of the vulva
  • Itching in the area
  • Burning sensation

The listed symptoms are paroxysmal, and at night they increase markedly.

With vulvar cancer progression and the increase in the size of the neoplasm, the disturbance of the affected tissues trophism develops, and ulcerated areas begin to appear. The cover of the vulva swells, in some regions its integrity is violated. Pain and pathological discharge (serous or with impurities of blood or pus) arise. With deeper invasion, and especially with the localization of the tumor on the clitoris, the pain syndrome increases. Due to the destruction of a malignant formation, intense bleeding often develops, and the discharge acquires an odor.

Metastasizing

 

Vulvar cancer may spread through the lymphogenous pathway, affecting first the inguinal, and then the hypogastric and iliac lymph nodes. At the 3rd stage of the disease, the spread of the malignant process to the vagina, the lower region of the urethra, the anal area, and lymph nodes located on one body side can be observed. At the fourth stage, the bladder, the upper parts of the urethra, the rectum, and the lymph nodes located on both body sides are affected. At stage 4 of the diagnosis, the development of metastatic foci in distant organs, i.e. lungs, liver, and intestines, is diagnosed.

At the advanced stages, the patient experience:

  • Intense pain
  • Subfebrile temperature
  • Fatigue, weakness
  • Depression and mood changes

As a rule, multiple regional and distant metastases are detected at the advanced stages of the diagnosis. In this case, palliative chemotherapy or radiation is used, aimed at relieving painful symptoms, improving the condition, and prolonging the patient's life.

Diagnostics

 

Since the main method of primary diagnosis making is still a gynecological examination, it is necessary to visit a doctor regularly for the timely detection of dangerous pathology and the start of vulvar cancer treatment. During the examination, the doctor detects small nodules, ulcers, pigmented plaques in the external genital area, which are noticeably different in color from healthy areas.

For a detailed examination of suspicious areas, vulvoscopy is used. Also, microscopic and cytological laboratory analyses of tissues obtained from the surface of the neoplasm and the vagina are performed. To make the final diagnosis, a biopsy of the vulva is performed and material is harvested for subsequent histological analysis.

To determine the stage of the oncological process, the degree of metastatic affection of regional lymph nodes and distant organs, the patient undergoes the following examinations:

  • Ultrasound scan of the abdominal and pelvic organs
  • Chest X-ray
  • If necessary, cystoscopy, rectoscopy, and anoscopy

Treatment options

 

Vulvar cancer treatment is one of the difficult spheres of gynecological oncology. In the vulvar cancer treatment options, pathogenetic approaches have not been elaborated yet. Vulvar cancer treatment is prescribed strictly individually; the integrated approach is used. Radiation therapy is prescribed in 10% of women; these are women with health contraindications for extended surgery. No more than 4% of patients with vulvar cancer may undergo chemotherapy when there are health contraindications to surgical treatment.

In general, vulvar cancer includes the following treatment options:

  • Surgical removal of tissues (local excision of malignant cells and adjacent tissues, vulvectomy, removal of lymph nodes, etc.)
  • Photodynamic treatment (destruction of atypical cells by focused light)
  • Laser ablation (vaporization of malignant cells with a laser beam)
  • Chemotherapy and radiation therapy

Surgery

 

Considering the course of pathology, peculiarities of the specific clinical case, doctors give preference to conducting organ-preserving surgery. Such interventions allow preserving the normal appearance of the organs, avoid disturbance of urination and defecation (which is of great importance since vulvar cancer may be located near structures responsible for the above).

Stage 1. How to treat vulvar cancer may depend on the degree of spread and invasiveness of the neoplasm. As a rule, a radical vulvectomy is performed (removal of the labia majora and small labia) in combination with unilateral lymphadenectomy.

Stage 2. Radical vulvectomy in combination with bilateral lymphadenectomy (inguinal and femoral lymph nodes are removed) is conducted. When oncopathology is detected in the clitoris area, the surgery of the inguinal and iliac lymph nodes is performed (in most cases, bilateral one).

Stage 3. After assessing the operability of the patient, a radical vulvectomy is performed, as well as bilateral surgery for the inguinal, femoral, and iliac lymph nodes in combination with adjuvant (postoperative) external radiation therapy.

Stage 4. At this stage, surgery for vulvar cancer treatment is possible only in separate cases, with moderate involvement of neighboring organs in the malignant process. If surgery is possible, it is supplemented by pelvic exenteration. The latter surgery is traumatic and is performed only when the oncological disease spreads to the pelvic organs. In case of unresectability, the patient with vulvar cancer may receive a course of preoperative radiation and chemotherapy first.

Separately, lymphadenectomy has to be considered. Relatively recently, the intervention to excise regional lymph nodes was mandatory. The vulvar cancer treatment today has changed. It’s now proved that there’s the so-called main lymphatic group, which is the first to be involved into the malignant process. And if it turns out that it is not affected by the metastases, this means that all other lymph nodes are also healthy, and surgery for the whole adjacent lymph nodes complex is simply unnecessary.

Chemotherapy

 

For the vulvar cancer treatment, no universal chemotherapy regimens were developed. Chemotherapy is used:

  • Prior to surgery – this type of cancer treatment is aimed at reducing the size of the neoplasm to transform the disease from an inoperable type to an operable one.
  • After surgery – the goal is to treat the malignant cells preserved in the body after the operation, to prevent relapse. It is recommended to carry out 6 courses or continue chemotherapy until the disease regresses.

Radiation therapy

 

Radiation therapy for vulvar cancer treatment is prescribed:

  • Before surgical treatment
  • After surgery kn order to prevent relapse
  • As the only method to treat vulvar cancer, when regional lymph nodes are affected
  • In combination with chemotherapy or separately in presence of health contraindications to surgical treatment
  • At the early stages, laser, radiofrequency or electrical ablation of the vulva is also used

Relapses

 

Recurrence after vulvar cancer treatment occurs on average in 24-30% of cases after primary surgery with or without radiation therapy.

About 80% of vulvar cancer recurrences occur within the first two years after the completion of the initial cancer treatment, mostly during the first 12 months.

This is why women after vulvar cancer treatment should undergo follow-up examination in order to detect early and potentially curable relapse. Besides, patients are advised to self-monitor the condition of the vulva in order to detect any changes early.

Relatively small prevalence of this oncology type, combined with a low recurrence rate, makes it difficult to conduct randomized clinical trials and develop optimal therapeutic strategy and treatment options.

Prognosis

 

How quickly vulvar cancer may develop and how long can a patient live with this disease?

The answers to these questions depend on many factors, first of all, on the timeliness of the diagnosis making and the success of the cancer treatment. The aggressiveness of the neoplasm differs depending on its localization. Clitoris cancer is considered the most aggressive. Malignant lesions of the labia minora have the most favorable prognosis, and the danger of a tumor on the labia majora occupies an intermediate position.

Best hospital for treatment abroad

 

Choosing hospitals for treatment abroad is extremely important, but by no means should be a difficult part of the process. Judged solely by statistical indicators of success in vulvar cancer treatment abroad, hospitals in Germany, Switzerland, and Israel are some of the best. Other destinations for treatment options (without devaluing the quality of cancer treatment) might be hospitals in Turkey and South Korea, that are in high demand among medical tourists.

Well-equipped and reputable hospitals should be the choice suitable for such treatment. A prerequisite for the success of treatment abroad is qualified specialists of the hospitals.

We suggest paying attention to the following hospitals:

  1. University Hospital Rechts der Isar Munich, Germany
  2. University Hospital Tuebingen, Germany
  3. Leverkusen Clinic, Germany
  4. University Hospital Ulm, Germany
  5. University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus Dresden, Germany
  6. University Hospital Heidelberg, Germany

You are welcome to check out the profiles of hospitals on the Booking Health website.

Cost of treatment for vulvar cancer

 

Several preparatory measures need to be conducted before starting the treatment in foreign hospitals. Without necessary documentation and medical reports, it will be impossible to correctly assess the services hospitals will need to provide.

The price policy is another issue that may differ significantly in two hospitals of the same country. But if we deduce the average cost of treatment options then the numbers are as follows.

The cost of treatment of vulvar cancer with partial vulvectomy starts at 10,208 EUR.

The cost of treatment of vulvar cancer with surgical vulvectomy starts at 10,211 EUR.

The cost of treatment of vulvar cancer with radical vulvectomy and lymphadenectomy starts at 19,080 EUR.

The minimal price for diagnostics of vulvar cancer is 1,749 EUR.

You may find prices for other treatment options on the Booking Health website.

Treatment abroad with Booking Health

 

Booking Health is the company providing services of medical tourism.

We strive to make treatment abroad as affordable as possible. Booking Health medical advisors will find the best options for treatment abroad for you.

With vulvar cancer, it’s necessary to be confident in the professionalism of clinicians. With Booking Health, you are free of worry. We select for you only highly qualified doctors and only comfortable conditions for staying abroad.

If you’d like to know more about mentioned services, please leave a request on the Booking Health website.

 

Authors: 

The article was edited by medical experts, board-certified doctors Dr. Nadezhda Ivanisova and Dr. Farrukh Ahmed. For the treatment of the conditions referred to in the article, you must consult a doctor; the information in the article is not intended for self-medication!

 

Sources:

Cancer Support Community

Cancer Treatment Centers of America

Johns Hopkins Medicine




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