Cardiosurgery: Mitral valve insufficiency (prolapse) — Prosthetic (replacement) of mitral valve (minimally invasive). Treatment
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common abnormality of the heart structure. According to statistics, this defect is found in 3% of the world population, but more than a third of all people with this anomaly feel almost healthy. The essence of the MVP is insufficient closing of flaps of the butterfly valve, and thereby the blood is partially thrown from the left ventricle into the left atrium.
The most common MVP is a congenital condition caused by a genetic predisposition, or intrauterine effect of adverse factors (infections, toxins, metabolic disorders). In some cases, the prolapse is formed after birth as a result of myocardial infarction, systemic and rheumatic diseases, vascular dystonia, myocardial toxicity, and endocrine disorders.
MVP Conservative Treatment
Asymptomatic disease requires no treatment, but in most cases, upon detection of mitral valve prolapse, the patient is recommended to normalize his lifestyle with adequate alternation of work and rest, dosed exercises and toning activities.
If the prolapse degree is expressed sufficiently, there appear unpleasant symptoms in the form of autonomic manifestations, sensations of disruptions in the heart work, headaches, susceptibility to colds, and reduced exercise tolerance. In this case, to improve the well-being and maintain the cardiac function, the patient is prescribed:
- cardiac glycosides;
- metabolic drugs improving the heart function;
- antithrombotic drugs;
- physiotherapy: massage, water therapy, psychotherapy and relaxation techniques.
MVP requires surgical correction upon severe cardiac decompensation and progression of valve insufficiency. The surgical method is selected according to the severity of hemodynamic disturbances and condition of the valve.
- Mitral valve plastics by open access implies suturing of leaflets and correction of length and position of chords holding the leaflet.
- Minimally invasive surgery is a plastic reconstruction carried out by introduction of a special probe moved to the valve into a peripheral vein. The surgeon’s actions are visualized by X-ray methods.
- The mitral valve replacement is indicated upon gross deformation of valve structures. The changed items are removed, and then a tissue or a mechanical prosthesis is implanted.
Selection of appropriate treatment allows avoiding complications and ensuring a good quality of the patient’s life.Hide