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Mitral valve insufficiency is a heart defect, when the mitral valve is unable to pump out the blood from the heart. This is the most common form of all valvular disorders. Every sixtieth patient with heart disease has mitral valve insufficiency. Usually people with insufficient mitral valve also develop the mitral stenosis, when the right atrioventricular orifice becomes narrowed.
There are two types of mitral valve insufficiency: congenital and acquired. Congenital one may be caused by adverse factors experinced by mother during pregnancy. Such adverse factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, infections and polluted environment. Acquired insufficiency of the valve can be result of trauma or tumor. It can also be provoked by rheumatism or infectious illness called endocarditis, which is a malformation of the inner lining of the heart.
Usually insufficiency is caused and accompanied by mitral valve prolapse. It means there is a bulging of one or both heart valves, that separate atrium of the left side from the ventricle. Prolapse is usually detected in young people between 15-30 years old. There are primary and secondary mitral valve prolapse syndromes. Causes of primary prolapse are hereditary or congenital diseases of connective tissue of the heart. The predisposition for secondary mitral valve prolapse is the same as for insufficiency: rheumatism or inflammation process of the heart. Sometimes it may be provoked chest injuries. Most people have no symptoms of mitral valve prolapse. In rare cases a person may complain of pain in the heart, which is usually occurring when a person is emotionally moved or when he conducted some kind of physical activity.
Patients with insufficient mitral valve can also feel dizziness in the morning or before the sleep and their heartbeat may become unstable due to the disruptions in the heart rhythm.