Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is malignant disease of the blood caused by structural changes in the 9th and 22nd pairs of granulocyte chromosomes. This genetic disorder is called "Philadelphia chromosome." According to statistics, people aged 30-50 years are the most susceptible to CML. The key to a successful fight against this pathology is early diagnosis.
The survey begins with the oncologist’s advice. The physician clarifies complaints, collects the case history and conducts a clinical examination. If there is a suspicion for a pathology, the patient receives a referral for complete blood count and blood chemistry. Certain changes in the hemogram (increased number of white blood cells, decrease in red blood cells and platelets) are a basis for further diagnostics.
The optimum research program includes:
1. Lymphocyte immunophenotyping by flow cytometry. The tumor cells are exposed to antibodies. The resulting complexes are then detected using fluorescent labels. This technique allows not only to diagnose the disease, but also to determine its specific type. This analysis requires the patient’s blood taken from a vein.
2. Cytogenetic analysis by standard karyotyping. Blood elements are stained in a special way and examined under a microscope. The research task is to detect or rule out the chromosomal breakage associated with leukemia.
3. Cytogenetic study by fluorescent hybridization. This study is carried out for the sole purpose of establishing the presence of "Philadelphia chromosome," provoking the CML development. Short DNA sequences (probes) labeled with fluorophores are used for analysis. Interacting with them, the altered chromosomes 9 and 22 are stained red and green.
4. Abdomen ultrasound. The patients diagnosed with CML feature the change of the liver and spleen size.
5. CT scan or MRI of the whole body. Comprehensive scanning allows establishing the prevalence of tumor process (impairment of bones, lymph nodes, brain, and other internal organs).
6. Bone marrow aspiration biopsy (ilium wing punch biopsy). During the procedure, a sample of the bone marrow is taken from the patient. The material is sent for histological analysis by which the chronic myeloid leukemia is distinguished from chronic lymphoblastic leukemia.
Painful procedures are performed under local anesthesia or in a drug-induced sleep. The cost of medication is determined by the treatment intensity. The patient during treatment is under supervision of medical personnel.
According to the test findings, the physician establishes an accurate diagnosis and develops the further treatment tactics.