Testicular embryonal carcinoma (TEC) is a rare malignant tumor growing from embryonic germ cells. It is commonly detected in 20 to 30 years old men. Typically, the disease is one-sided. In very rare cases, both testicles are affected simultaneously. Given that the term of the tumor mass doubling is 30 days on average, the medical care should be provided as early as possible.
In most cases, the treatment is initiated with surgery. For large formations, the surgical intervention may be preceded by chemotherapy. Anticancer drugs help to reduce the carcinoma size and facilitate its removal.
The standard surgical treatment is orchophunilectomy (a complete resection of the testis). Through an incision in the groin, the physician removes the affected testicle with spermatic cord. The excised tissue is sent for histological examination, the findings of which allow determining the tumor process stage definitely.
If the testicular vessels do not contain tumor cells (1st stage of cancer), the further treatment is not carried out. The patients are advised to be followed-up by the oncologist for life and regularly pass examinations for early detection of recurrence.
In the presence of cancer cells in the blood vessels (1st or 2nd stage), the removal of retroperitoneal lymph nodes (retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy) is prescribed. In modern clinics, the surgery is performed by a special technology, which allows avoiding damage to the nerves responsible for ejaculation.
For patients with metastatic testicular carcinoma, the surgery is complemented with chemotherapy. The best results are shown by the use of BEP and EP programs. Anticancer drugs are administered by courses, 3 weeks each. The total number of courses is 3 to 4. Even in difficult cases, the survival rate of patients according to these protocols is 90%.
The long-term use of cytotoxic agents can lead to infertility, so the men of childbearing age are recommended to resort to sperm cryopreservation before the start of chemotherapy.
After treatment completion, all patients need a dynamic follow-up. The frequency of visits to the oncologist is determined individually in each case. On average, s/he needs to visit an expert at least once a quarter. Hide