Detachment of the retina is a serious disease of the optic organ, during which choroid, the layer of the eye, separates from the retina. Today, retinal detachment is one of the most difficult surgeries. Nowadays, retinal detachment is one of the main causes of blindness. The retinal detachment was described long ago, in the 1701. The first scientist who researched it was a famous french doctor - Charles Saint-Yvves. Nevetheless, the doctors were able to detect this disease only after the discovery of new eye device - the ophthalmoscope. It happened only at the end of the nineteenth century and before that many patients who vere diagnosed with the detachment of the retine were not able to save their vision in any way. Many of them lost their visibility after 2 years of detachment of the retina. Retina in mostly responsible for the peripheral and main vision. Nowadays out of 30000 people ar least 2 suffer from retinal detachment. Luckily, this disease can be treated, although there may be a row of difficult post-operative complications.
However, the main reason for the formation of detachment of the retina is the membrane rupture.
Retinal detachment can have have both primary and secondary forms. The primary one is formed due to the retina rupture.
The secondary form develops during:
By origin retinal detachment can be divided into such groups:
Other retinal detachment causes include such risk groups:
Successful treatment of the disease depends on how promptly the patient went to the doctor. The sooner the doctor identifies the disease and its causes, the sooner the patient can begin the appropriate treatment. The symptoms of retinal detachmen are quite typical: pain, blurred vision, veil before the eyes. In this case, it is useless to use self-appointed medicine.
Other symptoms are:
Outbreaks in the eyes in the form of sparks and lightning
The patient can not focus his vision on different objects
Sometimes patients have a better eyesight after a good night dream their vision improves somewhat. This is explained by the fact that the horizontal position of the body moves the retina back into place, and when the person takes a vertical position, the retina is once again moving away from the choroid and visual defects are renewed.
The method of treatment is chosen strictly individually, so that the patients can save vision. Retinal detachment can not be cured by any pills, drops or injections. The only chance to preserve vision is immediate retinal detachment surgery.
The goal of retinal detachment surgery is to discover and close the retinal break.
Among the diseases that lead to retinal detachment, the most common are dystrophy and retinal tears, severe eye injuries with retinal perforation. Retinal tears often precede its degeneration. When the process of its retinal detachment begins at the periphery, the loss of peripheral (side)vision begins as well. At this point, if the operation is not performed immediately to restore the retina of the eye, then it may result in complete detachment and loss of vision. The success of treatment depends on whether the process of detachment reached the central part of the retina - the macula. Self-recovery of the retina happens very rarely and only for a short time, so the probability of detachment recurrence in the future is very high.
To restore the retina the patient may need several retinal detachment treatment options or operations. Usually, surgical treatment of retina is quite effective. Patients recover their vision but whether it will be the same, depends on how long is the rupture or detachment.
Photocoagulation and cryopexy: The two methods for restoring retinal eye are currently successfully used in ophthalmology clinics. Laser photocoagulation is performed after the retinal detachment ultrasound. This method is considered to be a good option because it does not require surgery, the recovery period is short, the swelling and irritation of the eyes is only slight.
With special tools of cryopexy the surgeon fixes the retina`s adjacent tissues using the frost. Under local anesthesia the frost can cure the retinal defect at the site of rupture. Cryopexy usually leaves a small scar. Cryopexy comes from the Gree word - cryo, which means cold. The recovery period lasts longer than with photocoagulation, swelling, redness of the eye saved considerable time. his method is most effective in the peripheral retinal breaks.
After eliminating the problem patients are prescribed with such measures:
All the factors that include fumes and high temperatures may reduce the effectiveness of the treatment and slow the retinal recovery of the eyes. Appointed medical treatment, such as special gels and eye drops may reducing the swelling, irritation and improves metabolic processes in the eyes. Drugs with absorbing action (aloe), antioxidants and vitamins for the eyes can help the eyes aswell as physiotherapy.
The choice of method for the operations for retinal detachment depends on many factors:
Preventive measures (photographic and laser coagulation, cryopexy) are held for persons with fractures and other defects of the retina detected during ophthalmoscopy. If these defects represent a potential danger of detachment,a person need to regularly check-up his eyes at the doctor`s. In some cases, a patient can prevent the emergence of retinal detachment. If a person has myopia or degeneration of the retina, he can use laser radiation (laser retinal photocoagulation) to improve his vision.
To prevent eye injuries people should carry out elementary precautions and safety measures both at work and at home. It is also recommended to give up bad habits, maintain the regime of work and provide the rest for the eyes. Patient with eye diseases should promptly treat major diseases and minimize heavy physical exertion, especially after 40 years.
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