Cervical cancer is one of the most common diseases in gynecology. The disease refers to controlled pathologies. Although symptoms manifest themselves late, screening can early detect cancer or precancerous conditions. The timely performed surgical resection allows to cure the disease once and for all. Nonetheless, it is difficult to treat the disease at an advanced stage.
In what cases can conization become an option of choice?
Conization is the removal of a fragment of the cervix in the form of a cone. This is an option of organ preservation surgery. Such surgical resection is less effective than total removal of the uterus. It often leads to relapses. Therefore, cervical conization has limited medical use in gynecology.
The benefits of the surgical procedure include:
- preservation of female fertility;
- quick rehabilitation after surgery;
- minimal risk of complications after surgical resection.
Nevertheless, the procedure has downsides as well. As compared to a hysterectomy, the risk of relapse is higher, and therefore conization can be used in limited cases. As a rule, the operation is performed to treat the early stages of cervical cancer, which do not manifest any symptoms. One of the strongest arguments is the young age of the woman and her reproductive plans.
Stage 0. This is carcinoma in situ and it can remain at this stage for several years. There are no symptoms yet, so it is detected by chance, during a screening in the Department of Gynecology. The tumor does not spread beyond the mucosa. During the medical examination, a doctor takes a smear for oncocytology. Should malignant cells be detected, the second stage will include colposcopy and biopsy.
The process of carcinoma in situ treatment depends on the following factors:
- histological type of the neoplasm;
- desire of a woman to preserve fertility.
There are mainly two histological types of cancer. These include squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The squamous cell carcinoma has a more favorable prognosis. The stage 0 usually does not require removal of the uterus. In this case, conization becomes an option of choice. The focus of tumor tissue can sometimes be simply destroyed by a laser. The squamous cell carcinoma of the uterus at stage 0 can be removed only in one case: if the neoplasm recurs after laser destruction or conization.
Adenocarcinoma is more aggressive. Even at stage 0, the hysterectomy is the method of choice. However, if a woman wants to preserve fertility, the doctors can perform conization.
Stage 1. The preferred operation is removal of the uterus. The stage 1A can be treated with conization. The removed sample will be necessarily examined. Should malignant cells be detected at the edges of the removed tissue, the scope of the operation will be expanded. In such situations, the patient is indicated removal of the uterus. If a woman insists on the need to preserve fertility, the surgeon will remove the cervix and part of the vagina.
At stage 1B, the hysterectomy is the only treatment option, while the conization is highly likely not to cure the disease.
Stages 2-4. The conization cannot be performed. Although at stage 2A1 another organ preservation operation may be used. It involves the surgical resection of a part of the vagina and the cervix. The uterus itself is preserved, which allows a woman to have a baby in the future.
The conization can be rarely combined with other therapeutic methods. If the cancer is in its initial stage, the tumor has a minimal size, the pathology can be cured with the help of conization alone. The additional techniques are simply not necessary. If the tumor is large, has metastasis, there is no sense in performing conization. In this case, the treatment methods may include hysterectomy, brachytherapy, remote radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
Nonetheless, there are many alternative operations that can be performed in the following cases:
- the disease has reached stage 1B or higher;
- cervical cancer at the early stage, if there is no need to preserve fertility.
The main operation to treat cervical cancer of any stage (except stage 0 of squamous cell carcinoma) remains hysterectomy. The uterus is removed with access through the vagina or abdominal cavity. In Germany, the specialists in the field of minimally invasive surgery perform laparoscopic organ removal surgery. It is less traumatic and safer, does not require long-term rehabilitation. The leading Medical Centers use robot-assisted surgery.
Organization of treatment in Germany
To undergo cancer diagnostics or treatment in Germany, you can use the services of the Booking Health company. We will arrange your trip to any large clinic in Germany. You can have cancer diagnostics or treatment at an affordable price. We provide the following benefits:
- Selection of the best Medical Center for treatment in Germany, which specializes in the diagnostics of cervical cancer, surgical resection or conization, brachytherapy and chemotherapy.
- Reduced cost of medical services due to the lack of overpricing for foreign patients.
- Booking an appointment in the German clinic on the most suitable dates for you.
- Preparation of a program based on the results of previous cancer diagnostics.
- Establishment of communication directly with your attending physician.
- Monitoring of all stages of the treatment program in Germany.
- Control of invoices, cost of services, return of unspent funds.
- Buying and forwarding of medicines.
- Organization of additional cancer diagnostics, rehabilitation or treatment in Germany.
- Communication with the Medical Center and the doctor after treatment.
The Booking Health company will make the cancer treatment process easier, faster, more successful and reduce the overall cost of the procedures. We will provide you with all the necessary services. We will book a hotel and airline tickets, arrange a transfer from the airport to the German clinic and from the clinic to the airport upon the program completion.