The incidence of cervical cancer (CC) is about 80 per 100 thousand women a year. It is the most common form of cancer pathology of female genitals. It is found that early start of sexual life, a large number of sexual partners and low social level increase the risk of tumors. CC treatment tactics depends on its development stage. The possible options are surgery, radiation or chemotherapy.
The candidates for surgery are women with stage I or II of the disease. For younger patients, unless the tumor has gone beyond the uterus, the organ-preserving interventions are indicated:
- Cone biopsy of the cervix. The surgeon removes the wedge-shaped portion of the organ along with the tumor.
- Loop excision. The affected area is excised using an electric loop.
- Cervix amputation. It implies the complete removal of the cervix, sometimes with the upper part of the vagina.
The use of sparing techniques allows preserving the patients’ reproductive function.
In adulthood, the uterus is usually excised completely. Often, surgery is complemented with resection of pelvic lymph nodes.
When the tumor progresses beyond the uterus, the organ can be removed together with a part of the intestines or bladder.
Radiation (or radio) therapy involves the destruction of cancer cells using the X-rays. At CC stage I or II, such an exposure is recommended in combination with surgery or chemotherapy, and at stage III or IV, as an independent technique.
The radical program implies simultaneous remote pelvic irradiation and brachytherapy (the radiating patch is administered directly into the uterine cavity). The total dose of radiation exposure can be up to 85 Gy.
The patients often report the following side effects:
- stomach ache.
The adverse reactions pass after the treatment course completion.
Chemotherapy means administration of drugs causing the death of cancer cells. At the initial stages of the disease, such treatment is conducted after surgery to prevent recurrences. At later stages, it is conducted in conjunction with radiation therapy to reduce the tumor size and to improve the quality of the patients’ lives.
The drug is administered intravenously. Adverse reactions depend on the particular drug, its dosage and individual reactions of the body. In most cases, the following is observed:
- loss of appetite,
- weakening of the immune system.
The recovery forecast is determined by the cervical cancer stage. Upon early cancer detection, the successful output ratio is 85 to 90%.