Treatment of breast cancer abroad

Breast Cancer is most common malignant oncologic pathology among women. It amounts to  25-30% of all the tumors among females. The statistics differs significantly from country to country. Japan rates as the lowest case of breast cancer among women with about 15 cases per 100 thousand female populations per year.  In Latin America and some USA stats reaches 90 cases per 100 thousand female populations per year. 


Breast Cancer Treatment


Causes of Breast Cancer

Main risk factors for developing breast cancer are:

  • First labor in the late age
  • Interruption of the first pregnancy
  • Infertility
  • Early periods start
  • Late menopause
  • Oral contraceptives use at a young age, before first labor
  • Hormonal replacement therapy for postmenopausal women (increases the risk of breast cancer by 35%)
  • Proliferative breast disease
  • Heredity (cases of breast cancer among blood relatives)
  • Alcoholism
  • Obesity (especially during the postmenopausal period)


One more important risk factor of developing breast cancer is age. The older the woman, the higher the risk of the disease.

Fibroadenoma and mastopathy are considered to be precancerous states, as breast cancer develops more as a result of these pathologies, than for healthy patients.


Breast Cancer symptoms

During the initial stages there may be no symptoms at all. When visiting a doctor, sometimes patients are complaining about:

  • Nipple discharge
  • Enlarged axillary lymph nodes
  • Redness of the skin on the chest
  • Deformation of the nipple’s halo or the nipple itself
  • Changes in breast shape

During examination the additional clinical signs indicating the onset of oncologic breast pathology can be detected:

  • Swelling of the breast skin
  • Retraction of the nipple
  • Ulceration of the nipple
  • Symptom of "umbilication" - retraction of the skin at a certain breast area
  • Flattened skin - the skin becomes hard above the tumor
  • Symptom of the ”peau d’orange”(lemon peel)- swelling of the papillary layer of the breast skin


The basic method of physical examination is palpation. Breast palpation can be done by a woman herself, at home, as well as by a doctor during the consultation.


While this procedure, the following symptoms of breast cancer can be detected:

  • A lump which can be mobile or welded to the skin
  • Enlarged lymph nodes


Examination and palpation are the most informative during the first phase of the cycle (till day 10). However, these methods cannot be used to identify tumors with a diameter less than 1 cm.


Breast Cancer diagnostics

Breast Cancer diagnostics


Breast Cancer Symptoms are a tell tale signs that you require a medical diagnosis that involves the following diagnostic methods:

  • Mammography.  It’s an X-ray of the breast. It is 95% accurate when detecting a tumor, assesses its size and location.
  • Needle aspiration biopsy is carried out using a thin needle. It establishes the breast cancer diagnosis in 85% of cases.
  • Excisional biopsy. The discovered seal is completely excised together with the surrounding tissue. The method detects not only the presence of tumor cells, but the number of them in hormone receptor that helps the doctor to determine the therapeutic tactics.
  • Trepanobiopsy. Using a thick needle the tissue cord is obtained. It’s sufficient not only for cytology, but for histology too.


Additional methods of research are:

  • Ductography
  • Computerized tomomammography
  • Ultrasound


Breast Cancer - Treatment abroad

Breast cancer treatment


The effective treatment abroad of breast cancer can be accomplished with various methods, including surgery, radiation therapy and drugs treatment. The choice of the breast cancer treatment depends on a number of factors, starting from the stage and type of pathology as well as the clinic’s resources and patient’s financial status.

During the recent years the preference is given to conserving the breast therefore procedures such, as:

  • Sectoral resection of the breast
  • Quadrantectomy
  • Lumpectomy


These are used only for the early stages of breast cancer. The edges of the surgical wound are investigated for the presence of atypical cells, and if necessary the volume of operation can be extended.

Radical mastectomy involves the complete removal of the affected breast pathological process, adipose tissue, lymph nodes, pectoralis minor, and sometimes major pectoral muscle. The volume of transactions depends on the extent of tumor invasion and metastasis to local lymph nodes.

Surgical treatment also includes the implementation of breast reconstruction with its own tissues (plastic flap) or implants. Such operations are pursuing an aesthetic purpose (improvement of the woman) appearance. They can be performed directly during mastectomy or some time after the operation.


Radiation therapy may be used at different times. By this criterion it can be:

  • Preoperative (the breast is irradiated to prevent the cancer recurrence after surgery)
  • Post-operative (preventive irradiation of the unremoved lymph nodes)
  • Intraoperative (carried out during surgery and irradiates the resected tumor and lymph nodes bed)
  • Self (used as a palliative, with an inoperable form of breast cancer, or in case of patient’s refusal from surgery)


Drug therapy includes the use of postoperative cytostatics (to inhibit the growth of tumors) and hormones. The goal of treatment is the destruction of microscopic metastases, which can cause disease recurrence.


Breast Canver prognosis

Depending on the stage of cancer and when it was detected, the first stage the five-year survival is 95% as a result of the advanced treatment methods. Fifteen-year survival of these patients is about 75%.

When compared with other malignant oncopathologies, breast cancer is well-treatable even in the late stages. Patients’ lives can be prolonged for several years, including inoperable cancer forms, by using chemotherapy and radiation therapy.


The latest (innovative) treatment and diagnostics methods abroad

Breast cancer prognosis


Chemo embolization is one of the innovative therapies for breast cancer with distant metastases. The essence of the procedure is to introduce specific embolizing material directly into the vessel which nourishes a tumor or its metastasis. Such a substance is required to contain a specific chemotherapy drug, which guarantees local effect on the tumor.


Nowadays there are 2 types of chemoembolization:

  1. Oil
  2. Using of polymeric microspheres


The latter option is particularly promising because it allows point-to influence the tumors tissue, and provides the necessary concentration of anticancer agent at the destination.


The use of anaerobic bacteria for a local effect on the tumor is one of the methods for breast cancer therapy as well as any other location. The essence of this method is in the introduction of microorganisms into the human body, where they specifically influence the malignant neoplasm location. The most promising at this stage is the use of bacteria of the Clostridium sporogenes strain. Such treatment provides tumor regression, but also requires the additional use of chemotherapy.



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