Breast Cancer is most common malignant oncologic pathology among women. It amounts to 25-30% of all the tumors among females. The statistics differs significantly from country to country. Japan rates as the lowest case of breast cancer among women with about 15 cases per 100 thousand female populations per year. In Latin America and some USA stats reaches 90 cases per 100 thousand female populations per year.
Main risk factors for developing breast cancer are:
One more important risk factor of developing breast cancer is age. The older the woman, the higher the risk of the disease.
Fibroadenoma and mastopathy are considered to be precancerous states, as breast cancer develops more as a result of these pathologies, than for healthy patients.
During the initial stages there may be no symptoms at all. When visiting a doctor, sometimes patients are complaining about:
During examination the additional clinical signs indicating the onset of oncologic breast pathology can be detected:
The basic method of physical examination is palpation. Breast palpation can be done by a woman herself, at home, as well as by a doctor during the consultation.
While this procedure, the following symptoms of breast cancer can be detected:
Examination and palpation are the most informative during the first phase of the cycle (till day 10). However, these methods cannot be used to identify tumors with a diameter less than 1 cm.
Breast Cancer Symptoms are a tell tale signs that you require a medical diagnosis that involves the following diagnostic methods:
Additional methods of research are:
The effective treatment abroad of breast cancer can be accomplished with various methods, including surgery, radiation therapy and drugs treatment. The choice of the breast cancer treatment depends on a number of factors, starting from the stage and type of pathology as well as the clinic’s resources and patient’s financial status.
During the recent years the preference is given to conserving the breast therefore procedures such, as:
These are used only for the early stages of breast cancer. The edges of the surgical wound are investigated for the presence of atypical cells, and if necessary the volume of operation can be extended.
Radical mastectomy involves the complete removal of the affected breast pathological process, adipose tissue, lymph nodes, pectoralis minor, and sometimes major pectoral muscle. The volume of transactions depends on the extent of tumor invasion and metastasis to local lymph nodes.
Surgical treatment also includes the implementation of breast reconstruction with its own tissues (plastic flap) or implants. Such operations are pursuing an aesthetic purpose (improvement of the woman) appearance. They can be performed directly during mastectomy or some time after the operation.
Radiation therapy may be used at different times. By this criterion it can be:
Drug therapy includes the use of postoperative cytostatics (to inhibit the growth of tumors) and hormones. The goal of treatment is the destruction of microscopic metastases, which can cause disease recurrence.
Depending on the stage of cancer and when it was detected, the first stage the five-year survival is 95% as a result of the advanced treatment methods. Fifteen-year survival of these patients is about 75%.
When compared with other malignant oncopathologies, breast cancer is well-treatable even in the late stages. Patients’ lives can be prolonged for several years, including inoperable cancer forms, by using chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Chemo embolization is one of the innovative therapies for breast cancer with distant metastases. The essence of the procedure is to introduce specific embolizing material directly into the vessel which nourishes a tumor or its metastasis. Such a substance is required to contain a specific chemotherapy drug, which guarantees local effect on the tumor.
Nowadays there are 2 types of chemoembolization:
- Using of polymeric microspheres
The latter option is particularly promising because it allows point-to influence the tumors tissue, and provides the necessary concentration of anticancer agent at the destination.
The use of anaerobic bacteria for a local effect on the tumor is one of the methods for breast cancer therapy as well as any other location. The essence of this method is in the introduction of microorganisms into the human body, where they specifically influence the malignant neoplasm location. The most promising at this stage is the use of bacteria of the Clostridium sporogenes strain. Such treatment provides tumor regression, but also requires the additional use of chemotherapy.
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