About the disease
Endometriosis is a condition when tissue responsible for forming the lining of female uterus, grows outside the borders of uterine cavity. This disease is called endometriosis, because the medical term for lining of the uterus is endometrium.
Endometriosis can grow to any part of the pelvic floor, including ovaries and bowel tissues. In extremely rare occasions endometriosis can spread beyond the pelvic floor.
Endometriosis develops gradually. At first it causes hormonal changes, thus affecting the menstrual cycle of a woman. The tissue of the uterus lining starts growing becomes swollen and eventually gets trapped in the pelvis. As a result woman experiences great discomfort, which affects her sexual life and brings extreme pain during her periods. It can also cause fertility problems, not allowing the ovaries to get fertilized if the endometriosis spread to that region. Endometriosis in 80% is caused by initial disruptions in the menstrual cycle, which affect the location of the lining.
- Pain in the pelvis
- Painful menstrual periods
- Pain during sexual intercourse
- Discomfort in the lower back
- Vulvar irritation
- Feeling of a foreign body in the pelvis
- Inability to get pregnant for a long period of time
- Formation of the scar
- Physical exam allows the doctor to determine if there is scar behind the uterus, which could have been caused by endometriosis. It can also determine if patient has cyst, another complication of endometriosis.
- Ultrasound can determine if the lining of the uterus is displaced and if there are cysts.
- Laparoscopy allows the gynecologist to get direct view of the uterus through special device.
- Curettage under the control of hysteroscopy is a surgery, during which the tissue, which causes irritation, is removed through the endoscope. Endoscope is a special device, used for inspection of the uterine cavity and treating it.
- Laparoscopic coagulation of endometriotic lesions and dissection of adhesions is another type of surgery, during which a laparoscope, which is a very thin instrument, is inserted into pelvis to seal by burning the damaged tissue and also dissect the scar tissues, caused by endometriosis.
- Open laparotomy and sanitation of the abdominal cavity also aims to resect the damaged tissue, but curettage is performed through the open surgery.
- Diagnostic laparoscopy and conservative treatment is used in mild cases of endometriosis, when it is possible to heal the condition by hormonal therapy.