About the disease
Rhinitis is the irritation of the membrane located in the nose. There are two types of rhinitis: allergic and nonallergic. Allergic rhinitis develops as a result of response to certain allergens, which provoke allergic reaction. According to the Healthline, the most common allergen is pollen. According to the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI), only in the USA approximately 8% of population experiences allergic rhinitis during their lifetime. The most effective way of treatment ofthe allergic rhinitis is preventing any contact with the allergens, which can cause the allergic response. The most common manifestations of an allergic rhinitis are sneezing and itching of the nose. Depending on how strong is the reaction to the allergens, the symptoms of allergic rhinitis vary. Other common allergens, which can provoke allergic reaction, are grass and dust, but they are much less common than pollen.
Non-allergic rhinitis is similar in its manifestations to allergic rhinitis, but in this case there is no allergen which provokes the reaction. A person can also feel congestion in the nose. It can be dripping as well. Overall, non-allergic rhinitis is more common in adults.
Overall, the symptoms of nonallergic rhinitis may come and go and vary in their severity throughout the lifetime of a person. Non-allergic rhinitis mostly develops in people who have hypersensitive nerve endings in the nose and as a result they immediately react to different irritants and weather changes. It has been noted that a person can develop rhinitis in more humid climates if he has hypersensitive nerve endings in the nose. Rhinitis can also develop as a result of a cold or other infections, but then it might not become as recurrent as in people who are exposed to irritants all the time. Such irritants may include smoke and smog.
- Runny nose
- Dripping nose
- Constant sneezing
- Cough in some cases
- Redness in case of allergic rhinitis
- During a general examination, the doctor will examine the nose passageways and evaluate all symptoms. In most cases, general examination is enough to give diagnosis. A doctor will ask if a person has like rhinitis symptoms in past, if the patient had any infections or cold lately and if he is allergic to certain chemicals which he was exposed to recently.
- A skin test is used to determine if a person has allergic or nonallergic rhinitis and also to determine the exact allergen which acts like an irritant. During this test, skin is pricked and then exposed to the most common allergens.
- An imaging tests is sometimes used to rule out the sinusitis and nasal polyps which can be causing similar symptoms.
- Conchotomy is a surgery used to repair the turbinate bone and thus prevent occurrences of rhinitis in future.
- Surgical turbinate reduction is a surgery used to repair the turbinate bone if it had been the cause of rhinitis.
- Septoplasty is a surgery used to correct the nasal septum and thus prevent the irritation of the nasal membrane.