Prostate cancer is the most common cancer for men and one of the main causes of death in the developed countries of Europe and North America. The proportion of prostate cancer among all cancers for men in some countries is 30-35%.
The pathology is characterised by a latent course, so it’s not always diagnosed. It is assumed that the actual incidence of prostate cancer is still higher than the official statistics.
There are many risk factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer for males. Among the main ones are:
At the initial stage of the disease there are no symptoms. Tumor nodules locate at the periphery of the prostate, and therefore do not restrict the urethra.
As a tumor grows the following symptoms can be developed:
Dysuric syndrome for prostate cancer is manifested by the following symptoms:
The appearance of these clinical symptoms associated with tumor invasion into the bladder and urethra. These symptoms worsen as the disease progresses.
They are especially expressed for patients who had prostate cancer on the benign prostatic hyperplasia background.
Other possible symptoms of the disease are:
Same as other cancers, prostate cancer gives metastasis. They can be found at:
Depending on the number and distance of metastasis, there are three forms of cancer. The patient is differentiated into the one of 3 groups to further ascribe the treatment strategy.
These are the following forms of prostate cancer disease:
Sometimes patients go to the doctor only during the later stages of the disease process, when there is acute pain in the bones (metastatic) or large blood amounts found in the urine (tumor invasion into the bladder).
Early diagnosis greatly improves the chances of early detection of prostate cancer. The sooner the treatment is started, the greater the chance of success and survival.
Every man over the age of 40 may, if desired, make an annual visit to the health centres and take a blood test for PSA (prostate specific antigen). Its increased level is not a clear evidence of the development of prostate cancer, but it is an occasion for a deeper examination of the patient.
Other methods of diagnostics:
The therapeutic strategy depends on many factors, such as the form of the disease (localized, locally advanced or generalized cancer), the number and location of metastases, tumor size, patient age.
The following treatments for prostate cancer are applied:
Radical prostatectomy is a removal of the prostate and seminal vesicles. This is the main method of treatment of the disease. Its goal is to completely cure the cancer. The most effective operation is at a localized form of pathology. The minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery can be performed in the good clinics, reducing the period of hospital stay and the period of his rehabilitation.
Radical prostatectomy with lymphadenectomy. Besides prostate the lymph nodes that may be affected by metastases are also removed.
Radical prostatectomy by a «daVinci» robot. Th use of a robot-assisted system allows the surgeon to perform the surgery more precise and less traumatic for the patient, reducing the risk of postoperative or intraoperative complications, and reduces the duration of the patient's rehabilitation. This operation will the most likely to preserve the potency of men.
Radiation therapy. Tumor and body sections, where there are metastases, irradiated, resulting in neoplasm tissue destruction. It can be used as an adjunct to surgery to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence.
The modulated intensity radiation therapy (IMRT). This is more effective modification, that allows to increase the dose without causing additional damage to healthy tissue. The duration of radiation therapy can be reduced.
Brachytherapy iscontact interstitial radiation therapy. It can be combined with external beam radiation therapy.
PSMA therapy is an alternative to chemotherapy. It is assigned the chemotherapy is contraindicated or not successful. The essence of the treatment is the introduction of weakly radioactive substances to the human body. It binds selectively to tumor cells and slows the growth of metastases.
High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation (HIFU). Duringthis procedure the parts of the tumor are exposed to the ultrasound.It focuses on a specific location, so doesn’t affect the healthy tissue. The procedure allows to destroy abnormal cells by heating them to high temperature.
Prostate cancer progresses relatively slowly when compared with other oncological pathologies. However, without treatment, 10-year survival of patients is only 15%.
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