Cancer of ovaries affects female reproductive organs that are responsible for producing such hormones as estrogen and progesterone. It is also known as the female`s reproductive system cancer. Ovarian cancer is more common for women aged 60-70 years. 80% of ovarian cancer happens after the menopause. In many cases the pathology manifests itself only as a cyst that grows slowly and after a lasting period of time transforms into a malignant tumor.
If the cancer has been found in the beginning stage of development, the survival rate for women is very impressive - up to 94% of cases. The second stage has 50% and 70% of the surviving patients and the third stage has the indicators of 35%. Naturally, the sooner the pathology is diagnosed, the better is the prognosis if the longer tun.
Ovarian cancer symptoms in the early stages are practically absent. Not before the tumor becomes mig, does the patient feel some discomfort.
Most well-recognized symptoms of ovarian cancer are as follows:
When the female`s reproductive system cancer has metastasized, the patient may experience bone pain, and headaches. Other ovarian cancer signs are diarrhea and the strange feeling of foreign body in the abdomen. This feeling may enhanced after going to the toilet and after meals.
Most often metastases to appear in case the disease has gone too far in its growth and thus the pathological process started to affect other organs. Metastases capture new territories incredibly fast. The problem is that almost every form of ovarian cancer has metastases. The most dangerous metastases are those that strike the system of lymphs. The peculiarity of metastatic tumors is that they are practically insensitive to the effects of chemotherapy and radiation exposure. They are therefore may be removed only surgically.
For the diagnosis the doctors use special scan technique or simple ultrasound. These methods can help to make some suggestions about the nature of tumor. The doctor will also needsthe history of diseases to understand the nature of pain and to explore previously transferred gynecological diseases. The beginning of menstruation, its cycle and numver of pregnancies are also important. Naturally, women are required to undergo the gynecological examination with bimanual investigation.
Sometimes the diagnosis is carried out by a special device - laparoscope. The doctor makes a small incision, inserts a device into the peritoneum and examines the patient`s the ovaries. If it the organ is struck by a benign cyst, its removal is not required.
There are not many treatment options for ovarian cancer. The main one is the direct surgery which includes the removal of ovaries and sometimes fallopian tubes. When the disease has progressed, the removal of the uterus may be required as well.
It should be noted that surgery gives very good results if the cancer is diagnosed in its most early stage. The women may even retain their reproductive function. This applies to those cases where the tumor affects only one organ.
Once the operation is performed, the patient is necessarily assigned radiotherapy and chemical therapy. The purpose of these procedures is the possible destruction of cancer cells that were not removed by surgery.
Some doctors use a combination of surgery and three courses of chemotherapy. Radiation therapy for this type of cancer is used very rarely. Nowadays radiosurgery is also gaining the popularity. This method is practically painless and bloodless as it does not damage the healthy tissue. In a place of neoplastic cells the radioactive rays are directed through the so-called gamma-knife. The exact location of the tumor in this case must be calculated very precisely. But this method is only applicable only for small tumors. Chemotherapy is conducted an average in three or four (or more) courses. The first course is done immediately after surgery and subsequent one after a half or two months . Some patients need to undergo chemotherapy every six months.
During the first chemotherapy the patient receives the highest number of drugs. Dose of subsequent courses should be no less than seventy per cent of the previous one. To achieve a lasting effect after the operation chemotherapy is continued from one to three years. Treatment of chemotherapy is sometimes prescribed before the operation as it inhibits the growth of the tumor and prevents the metastases. Nevertheless, chemotherapy has a lot of adverse side effects. They are as follows:
After completion of chemotherapy, the adverse side effects disapear. The patient renovates his hair growth and restores appetite. However, some medications cause lasting side effects, which subsequently remain for life.
Best ovarian cancer treatment centers are located in Germany and the USA. These ovarian cancer treatment centers have the most advanced medical treatment options. The most famous ones are situated in Berlin and New York.Hide
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